China News Agency, Beijing, February 24th. Question: After 30 years of completion of the "three-step process", how will China's manned spaceflight move towards the vast space?
China News Agency reporter Ma Shuisha
On February 24, "Chasing Dreams and Asking the Sky—Exhibition of Thirty Years of Achievements in China's Manned Spaceflight Engineering" was officially opened at the National Museum. and building achievements.
2022 is the 30th anniversary of China's manned spaceflight program.
At the end of this year, China will fully complete the space station, completing the last step of the "three-step" development strategy of the manned spaceflight project.
From ancient times to the present, human beings have been continuously expanding their cognition and scope of activities. Looking up and exploring the vast sky is not only of great significance to the country, but also to human beings.
Zhou Jianping, chief designer of China's manned spaceflight project, said that manned spaceflight not only reflects the comprehensive strength of a country, but also promotes the development and progress of human civilization.
Wherever people go, human civilization can go. Manned spaceflight allows human beings to enter a new and wider space. People can not only understand new scientific phenomena, but also use the special space environment to carry out scientific research.
On September 21, 1992, China's manned spaceflight project was officially approved and implemented. On December 31, 2022, Chinese President Xi Jinping announced in his New Year's message that "China's space station has been fully completed."
It took several generations of Chinese astronauts a full 30 years from drawing a dream with a blueprint to striving to realize it.
The past 30 years have been a journey of exploration for the independent development of China's manned spaceflight.
Although China has mastered basic technologies such as launch vehicle and returnable satellite technology before the project was approved and implemented, in the field of manned spaceflight, China has almost started from scratch.
Over the past 30 years, China has made breakthroughs and mastered the technology of manned space travel, becoming the third country capable of independently carrying out manned spaceflight activities. The experimental space laboratory has made breakthroughs and mastered technologies such as cargo transportation and propellant replenishment, carried out space science experiments and technical experiments, and laid the foundation and accumulated experience for the construction and operation of space stations.
From one-day flight to three-person flight for half a year, from in-cabin experiments to out-of-vehicular activities, from Tiangong-1 to the Chinese space station, looking back at this road of "passing through barriers and upgrading" technology, a distinctive feature is that it is steady and steady, speeding up while moving forward. In the past 20 years, we have solidly laid the foundation stone, and in the next ten years, we will accelerate the sprint with all our strength.
Thirty years to complete the "three-step" is inseparable from the correct choice of technical routes.
In the 1980s and 1990s, the world's manned spaceflight was divided into two technical paths: the space shuttle and the manned spacecraft, and the space shuttle was the craze at that time.
After repeated demonstrations, China finally chose to start with manned spacecraft according to its own economic and technical conditions.
Today, other aerospace countries in the world have switched from space shuttles to manned spacecraft.
Zhou Jianping pointed out that China has not undergone a major adjustment of the technical route. Looking at it now, the choice of this road is a very important decision that has enabled China's manned spaceflight project to be implemented smoothly for so many years.
The completion of the "three steps" in 30 years is inseparable from the continuous research of astronauts of all generations.
As China's first manned launch vehicle, the Chang-2F rocket and the Shenzhou spacecraft have successfully sent 16 astronauts and 26 people into space.
Over the years, researchers have been working to further improve rocket performance.
Today, the safety of the Chang-2F rocket has increased from 0.997 at the beginning of development to 0.99996, which means that even if the rocket fails in flight, the possibility of astronauts escaping and failing is less than one in ten thousand.
Qian Hang from the First Academy of China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation participated in the development of the fault detection and escape system of the Chang-2F rocket. He told reporters that the process from project approval to performance optimization is not getting easier. In many cases, there are no foreign countries. The experience for reference must rely on scientific researchers to actively seek and discover problems.
Qian Hang has participated in all previous manned launch missions since the construction of the space station.
He said with emotion that seeing astronauts confidently and calmly enter the rockets he participated in, and seeing astronauts entrust their lives in the hands of scientific researchers, that feeling is really different. Yes, the rocket we design is to send people into space, and human life is priceless. These years of personal experience have made me feel more deeply about this sentence, manned spaceflight, human life is at stake, this is not a slogan.”
Under the research of such batches of scientific researchers, entering the space station era, China's manned spaceflight has brought more surprises to people.
The Chinese entered their own space station for the first time, Chinese women performed spacewalks for the first time, a robotic arm debuted on a Chinese space station, Chinese astronauts completed a 6-month in-orbit stay for the first time, Tianzhou cargo spacecraft set a world record for 2-hour fast rendezvous and docking, China's first Realize that 6 astronauts are in orbit at the same time... New technological breakthroughs have added more bright moments to China's aerospace industry.
Today, the Chinese "space home" has been built and has entered the stage of operation and development for more than ten years. In the future, more "footprints" of Chinese astronauts will be left in space.
At present, China's astronaut team is expanding and growing, the selection and training of astronauts is becoming more and more standardized, and the mechanism is becoming more and more mature.
While "settle down" 400 kilometers away, China's manned spaceflight is also on the way to the moon.
This exhibition exhibited for the first time the models of the main flight products for future manned lunar landings, such as a new generation of manned spacecraft and lunar landers.
China's first astronaut Yang Liwei said that the Chinese people will not stop exploring the vast universe. "In the future, we will go further into the deep space." become a reality in the future.