The spring college entrance examination is coming soon, and the enrollment of undergraduate vocational education colleges is high——

Vocational education college entrance examination, how to expand the breadth of talent growth

  The spring college entrance examination is just around the corner, and the voice of a college student has attracted the attention of tens of thousands of candidates—"In the third year of high school, because I was addicted to games, I had too many academic 'history debts', and I was unwilling to 'just go to a technical school'. Relevant information about single-job recruitment. I understand that compared with ordinary college entrance examinations, single-job recruitment for higher vocational colleges gives candidates with less than ideal grades more choices, and they can give priority to choosing excellent higher vocational colleges and majors. I am very grateful for the single-job recruitment for higher vocational colleges The opportunity for me to go to university has fulfilled my university dream.” On the official account of the Sichuan Education and Examination Institute, the experience of a freshman from Sichuan Engineering Vocational and Technical College was repeatedly reprinted.

  For many vocational secondary school students, or some ordinary high school students who "look at the undergraduate course", the spring college entrance examination and single-entry higher vocational education that more and more provinces have implemented in recent years have become their new choices.

Behind this is the continuous deepening of vocational education reform and development in recent years.

Recently, the Central Office and the State Office issued the "Opinions on Deepening the Reform of Modern Vocational Education System Construction" (hereinafter referred to as "Opinions"), proposing to improve the vocational education college entrance examination system, improve the "cultural quality + vocational skills" examination and enrollment methods, and expand the application-oriented Measures such as the scale of enrollment in the college entrance examination for on-the-job teaching in undergraduate schools.

How will the vocational education college entrance examination be changed next?

How will the reform further expand the growth width of skilled talents, and how will it affect the future development ecology of vocational education?

The reporter conducted an interview.

  Spring exams, summer exams, single admissions, multiple channels to create an "overpass" for student development

  "Students admitted through the "higher vocational single recruitment" will have a slightly weaker foundation in cultural courses, but they generally have strong hands-on skills and more active thinking and innovation." Geng Wei, director of the Admissions and Employment Department of Nanjing Communications Vocational and Technical College, introduced the recent The number of students in the school has changed quietly in the past few years. "The proportion of technical school students has increased in the past two years, and it is already close to the summer college entrance examination enrollment scale. The spring examination, summer examination, and single enrollment currently account for almost one-third of each."

  "Our school's students mainly come from early enrollment, single-entry single-entry, general college entrance examination, '3+2' college upgrades and other channels. The number of students is about 400, 1,400, 1,700, and 400 respectively. In 2022, a total of more than 3,900 people will be admitted."

  "Taking 2022 as an example, our hospital has admitted a total of 6,120 people (all of them are junior college students), of which 2,684 people (43.86%) were admitted by single admissions, and 3,436 people (56.14%) were admitted by unified admissions for college entrance examination." The reporter investigated many occupations in Zhejiang and Sichuan Institutions have received similar feedback.

  Recently, the Ministry of Education stated at a press conference that since the issuance of the "Guiding Opinions on Actively Promoting the Reform of the Enrollment System for Higher Vocational Education Examinations" in 2013, Shandong, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Fujian, Anhui and other places have implemented "vocational education The "College Entrance Examination" has been piloted and has achieved good results and experience.

In the future, we will continue to increase the proportion of students enrolled in vocational undergraduate and vocational colleges through the "Vocational Education Entrance Examination", so that "Vocational Education Entrance Examination" will become the main channel for enrollment in higher vocational education, especially in vocational undergraduate schools.

  The reporter noticed that in the 2023 Higher Vocational Single Enrollment Enrollment Measures announced by Hebei Province, there are a total of 72 colleges and universities that implement higher vocational single enrollment, and the unified examination plan and counterpart plan are compiled separately, and the declaration ratio is stipulated in principle. No less than 70% of the school's 2022 junior college (higher vocational) enrollment plan.

  Hu Xiangdong, director, professor, and doctoral supervisor of the Measurement and Evaluation Research Center of Central China Normal University, said that the key to the reform of the vocational education college entrance examination lies in the implementation of classified examinations to reflect the uniqueness of the vocational education college entrance examination.

The first is to adapt measures to local conditions, and each region formulates vocational education college entrance examination plans based on local conditions; Guiding Opinions on Educational Integration and Training, Carrying out Secondary Vocational and Higher Vocational (3+2) five-year integration, Secondary Vocational and vocational undergraduate or applied undergraduate (3+4) seven-year integrated, Higher vocational college and vocational undergraduate or applied undergraduate ( 3+2) Five-year continuous training, improving the examination methods and training methods for undergraduate promotion, etc.

"Among them, it is very important for each province to give higher vocational colleges the right to enroll in separate examinations. After the local education administrative department issues an enrollment plan, each higher vocational college independently formulates the exam outline, decides on the content of the exam, and organizes the admission of the exam, which greatly mobilizes the vocational schools. Positivity."

  Qi Zhanyong, a professor at the Department of Education of Shaanxi Normal University and a doctoral supervisor, said that in the future, it is necessary to expand the scope of the vocational education college entrance examination and allow all high school graduates, including secondary vocational and general high school graduates, to participate in the vocational education college entrance examination.

"Both the general college entrance examination and the vocational education college entrance examination should be equally open to high school graduates, and students can choose independently according to their personality, ability, future academic development, and career development. This will not only broaden students' choices, but also improve vocational education. The attention of the college entrance examination."

"Cultural quality + vocational skills", focusing on basic knowledge and practical ability

  This time, the "Opinions" proposed to improve the "cultural quality + vocational skills" examination and enrollment method, which made up for the lack of practical examination of skills operation in the enrollment of higher vocational education.

However, schools across the country have different standards for cultural quality and skills tests, which has also caused public concerns about the fairness of the tests.

  "In addition to the cultural class written test, professional ability is also tested through interviews." A person in charge of higher vocational admissions in East China told reporters that the content of the interview test mainly includes whether the students understand the majors, career prospects, and school characteristics, as well as the students' language. Expression, psychological quality, life skills, etc.

"Generally, it takes the form of randomly selected questions, and you can answer whichever category you draw, such as how do you think about conflicts between classmates, how do you think about hot social issues, etc. It is similar to many social exams (such as civil service exams) .”

  When asked whether the vocational skills examination will focus more on professional scenarios in the future, the person in charge is not optimistic, "Take the transportation category as an example, the standards of various (sub) industries are quite different, and it is difficult to have a unified standard. At the same time, separate enrollment There are also many ordinary high school students in the source of students, they have no vocational training foundation, and the starting line is different from technical secondary school students."

  The reporter saw in the documents of some provinces that have announced the 2023 single recruitment method for higher vocational colleges that the implementation methods of professional skills testing organizations in various regions are different.

For example, in Shandong, “in principle, the Provincial Education Enrollment and Examination Institute will organize uniformly, and the examination methods and scores will be implemented in accordance with the provincial unified skill test plan”; ; Hebei "takes the provincial unified examination and multi-school joint examination method".

  "Large-scale paper-and-pencil tests like ordinary college entrance examinations cannot meet the vocational and technical enrollment requirements of higher vocational colleges. The examination content system of the college entrance examination is based on the "Professional Teaching Standards for Secondary Vocational Schools (Trial)" promulgated by the education department, and the latest version of the "Occupational Classification Code of the People's Republic of China" and "National Occupational Skills Standards" promulgated by the Human Resources and Social Security Department. That is to say, it should not be assessed only by the content of professional teaching, but should be measured by the latest national standards in the industry." Hu Xiangdong said.

  "It is recommended that the assessment of labor education be included in the professional quality assessment of single recruits." Geng Wei suggested, "Students' hands-on ability, labor behavior habits, and labor literacy are actually the basic qualities of high-skilled talents."

  Hu Xiangdong said that the vocational education college entrance examination will force technical schools to improve their level. The key is to break through the barriers of paper and pen tests, and set the examination room in the factory, on the construction site, and in all scenarios that can test students' hands-on ability and professional ability.

"For example, if you enroll students in mechanical professional examinations, you should test them on the machine tool. Only in this way can you effectively overcome the disadvantages of using paper and pen tests to forcefully simulate practical operations and lead to test distortions."

  "The promulgation of the "Opinions" has broadened the channels for secondary vocational students to enter higher education in an institutionalized way. Therefore, the establishment of a vocational education college entrance examination that is parallel to the general college entrance examination can not only select excellent students for higher vocational education, but also help improve vocational education. In the future, more investment should be made to promote the infrastructure construction of the 'vocational education college entrance examination', and vigorously build a versatile and fully functional vocational skill examination base as a special examination place." Qi Zhanyong said, "In addition, the 'vocational education college entrance examination' In addition to being used in the screening of students, grades should also be used as an important reference for secondary vocational students to apply for jobs. Employers should give preferential treatment to those who have achieved excellent grades. In particular, some enterprises and institutions should open certain jobs to strengthen social Recognition of the exam."

Reform of Vocational Education College Entrance Examination Forces Vocational Education to Improve Quality

  The reporter noticed that many vocational education counseling institutions encourage candidates to try different examination methods based on their own conditions.

Differentiation, healthy development and competition have gradually formed.

  "If students feel that there is little hope for undergraduate studies, they will want to apply for a better junior college." The admissions director of a school told reporters, "From the results of enrollment, the overall quality of students has improved year by year in the past two years, and the comprehensive ability of students is good."

  "Once the test of 'real guns and live ammunition' is carried out, it will definitely give secondary vocational education a strong traction and guide technical secondary schools to pay attention to students' practical ability; moreover, there will be 'reverse force' for higher vocational schools, forcing them to use A higher level of education meets the 'uplifted' learning needs of students," said Hu Xiangdong.

  According to Qi Zhanyong's analysis, at present, the "vocational education college entrance examination" system is still in the stage of construction and perfection, and it still faces a series of problems in reality: First, the influence is insufficient and the attractiveness is not high. The number of places is insufficient, and there is a time lag, which is not enough to mobilize the learning enthusiasm of secondary vocational students and promote the improvement of the quality of education in secondary vocational schools; second, there are large differences in the source of students for the "vocational education and college entrance examination", and the standards for multiple enrollment forms are not uniform; third, The content of the test lacks certainty and the operating procedures are complicated.

  "At present, the scale of undergraduate vocational education in my country is relatively small and the professional layout is narrow. Therefore, it is necessary to add vocational education undergraduate colleges, encourage more colleges with strong educational capabilities and good education quality to upgrade to undergraduate colleges, and accelerate the promotion of some ordinary colleges. Undergraduate colleges and universities are transformed into applied technical universities." Qi Zhanyong said that such scarce high-quality vocational education resources can fully reflect the authority and value of vocational education college entrance examinations, promote secondary vocational students to enhance learning motivation and confidence, and increase their registration participation. Fundamentally enhance the strength of vocational education.

  (Our reporter Zhou Shixiang Guangming Daily)