(Year-end special article) From setting a world record to setting a record high, China's aerospace development picture is becoming clearer

  China News Agency, Beijing, December 30th (Ma Shuaisha) On December 29th, the 2022 China Space Launch came to a successful conclusion.

Looking back on this year, China Aerospace is still busy and has achieved outstanding results.

The space station has a "T" basic configuration, the lunar soil research has discovered the "Chang'e Stone", and "Kuafu-1" has successfully chased the sun... Many major aerospace projects have written Chinese-style romance in the vast universe, including "creating world records"" A number of major breakthroughs have been achieved for the first time at home and abroad, and the development picture of China's aerospace industry has become clearer.

The picture shows the comparison between the hard X-ray imaging of a C-class flare observed by "Kuafu-1" HXI on "Double 11" on November 11, 2022, and the AIA/SDO ultraviolet 1700 image.

Photo courtesy of Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences

The National Space Laboratory formed 6 people in orbit at the same time to witness history

  In 2022, China's space station mission has carried out 6 launches, with heavy payloads and dense missions. The two experimental modules weigh more than 20 tons. The Tianzhou-5 mission is only 12 days away from the launch of the Mengtian experimental module.

At 7:33 on November 30, 2022, Beijing time, the long-awaited crew of Shenzhou XIV astronauts successfully opened the "door" and warmly welcomed relatives from afar to settle in the "Tiangong".

Afterwards, the two astronauts of the "Victory Reunion" took a group photo together in the Chinese "space homeland" that is enough to be recorded in history.

Photo by Wang Jiangbo

  Looking back at this year, there are frequent good news about the construction of China's space station.

The Shenzhou 13 manned spacecraft achieved rapid return for the first time, which greatly shortened the journey home for astronauts; the Tianzhou 5 cargo spacecraft achieved a two-hour autonomous rapid rendezvous and docking for the first time, setting a world record; Joining will not only open the era of "three-bedroom" space for Chinese people, but also provide more opportunities for space experiments; the two cabin transpositions have formed the basic configuration of the "T" character of the Chinese space station.

  After the space station entered the construction stage, China successively sent six astronauts into space.

The crew of Shenzhou 14 completed a 6-month space residency for the first time, and Chen Dong became the first Chinese astronaut to stay in orbit for more than 200 days; Two astronauts are flying in orbit at the same time, and the space station has entered a long-term manned residence mode.

While more astronauts are flying into the sky to realize their dreams, China has also started the selection of the fourth batch of reserve astronauts, and selected payload experts in Hong Kong and Macau for the first time.

Lunar soil research, "Kuafu" sun exploration results released, deep space exploration timetable gradually clear

  This year, the results of lunar exploration and deep space exploration continued to be released.

Chinese scientists discovered a new mineral in the Chang'e-5 lunar sample for the first time, and named it "Chang'e Stone". This is the sixth new mineral discovered by humans on the moon. China has become the third country in the world to discover new minerals on the moon. nation.

The reporter learned from the Institute of Geochemistry of the Chinese Academy of Sciences on September 12 that through the study of Chang'e-5 lunar soil samples, it was found that there is a high content of water in the surface layer of Chang'e-5 minerals, which comes from the injection of the solar wind, and it is mainly in the form of OH. exist.

TEM image of the surface microstructure of Chang'e-5 minerals.

Photo courtesy of Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences

  At the same time, the fourth phase of the lunar exploration project officially launched the project development.

Chang'e-6 is planned to sample and return on the back of the moon around 2025; Chang'e-7 plans to carry out environmental and resource exploration at the south pole of the moon around 2026; Chang'e-8 is planned to launch around 2028 and form an international lunar scientific research with Chang'e-7 Basic station.

In the field of manned lunar exploration that has attracted much attention, officials revealed that the new generation of manned launch vehicles is expected to complete its first flight around 2027.

  In terms of deep space exploration, "Kuafu-1" successfully launched into the sky, joined hands with "Xihe" launched last year, and the first batch of scientific images of "Kuafu-1" released recently achieved many firsts at home and abroad; Using data from the Zhurong rover, Chinese scientists have found signs of water activity in the landing zone.

  While the latest research results continue to be released, the timetable for deep space exploration has become clearer.

According to Wu Yansheng, chairman of China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation, China plans to launch a deep-space probe around 2025 to detect near-Earth asteroids and main-belt comets. It plans to implement Mars sampling and return missions in the next 10 to 15 years. Interplanetary exploration of the Jupiter system and Uranus, carrying out solar exploration and detection of the edge of the solar system. It is planned to implement the "Sound-seeking Project" around 2030 to detect whether there are planets suitable for human habitation outside the solar system.

The number of annual launches hit a new high, and the multi-type rocket successfully made its first flight

  According to statistics, China will launch more than 60 spaceflights in 2022, setting a record high.

Among them, the number of annual launches of the Long March series of launch vehicles exceeded 50 for the first time.

The successful maiden flight of multiple types of rockets has continuously improved the type spectrum of China's launch vehicles.

On February 27, 2022, the Long March 8 Yao 2 carrier rocket was launched at the Wenchang Space Launch Site in China. This time, the Long March 8 Yao 2 carrier rocket launched 22 commercial satellites at a time, creating a record for the largest number of satellites launched in China at one time. .

Photo by Liu Shuaiye issued by China News Agency

  The Long March 5B, the rocket with the largest carrying capacity in low-Earth orbit in China, achieved two launches a year for the first time. The Long March 8 carrier rocket set a new record for China’s launch of multiple satellites with one rocket. The first solid-liquid hybrid rocket in China, the Long March 6, was redesigned. Fly successfully.

Long Lehao, an academician of the Chinese Academy of Engineering, said that while the annual number of launches of the Long March series of carrier rockets has hit a record high, the proportion of new-generation carrier rockets is also increasing year by year. Highest in three years.

  This year, the solid launch vehicle achieved a new breakthrough in its carrying capacity, which effectively improved China's ability to quickly enter space at low cost.

The solid carrier rocket "Lijian No. 1" with greater carrying capacity and the Jielong No. 3 carrier rocket that achieved thermal launch at sea for the first time successfully made its maiden flight; The Kuaizhou-1A rocket has increased by about 5 times.

  Facing the future, China is still developing the heavy-duty carrier rocket Long March 9, and strives to complete its first flight around 2030.

Compared with the Long March 5B carrier rocket, which has a carrying capacity of more than 22 tons in low-Earth orbit, the low-orbit carrying capacity of the heavy-duty launch vehicle will reach 150 tons, and the carrying capacity of the Earth-Moon transfer orbit will reach more than 50 tons.

Wu Yansheng said that it represents the country's greatest ability to enter space at one time, and it is the key support for human beings to carry out large-scale deep space exploration, development, application and manned interstellar flight.

  Looking back at 2022, China's space exploration has taken another solid step forward.

Looking to the future, China Aerospace has already set its sights further.

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