Guarantee seed source security and national food security (comprehensively consolidate the foundation of food security)

  Our reporter Li Xiaoqing

  "People's Daily" (Version 18, December 07, 2022)

  The report of the 20th National Congress of the Communist Party of China proposed to "intensify the implementation of the seed industry revitalization action".

  Seeds are the foundation of agricultural modernization.

In recent years, various regions and departments have continued to strengthen their weaknesses and make up for their shortcomings, aiming at the links of variety selection and breeding and promotion of improved varieties, accelerating the revitalization of the seed industry, and firmly holding the seeds in their own hands.

Increased varieties give farmers more choices

  In Tuyuan Town, Sucheng District, Suqian City, Jiangsu Province, there are patches of green wheat seedlings in the fields.

  "The wheat we chose this year is a new variety. It is estimated that the number of ears per mu can increase by 100,000 ears, and the yield per mu can increase by more than 100 kilograms." said Zhuang Yunfei, a large grain grower in Tuyuan Town.

  Zhuang Yunfei began to cooperate with Jiangsu Ruihua Agricultural Technology Co., Ltd. in 2015 to breed new varieties of wheat in the form of commissioned orders.

"The seeds of Ruihua Company are guaranteed in terms of disease resistance and high yield." Lao Zhuang said, "If you use good seeds to cultivate the land, the benefits of farming will become better and better."

  Not far from the wheat field of Laozhuang is Jiangsu (Sucheng) Modern Agriculture (Rice and Wheat) Science and Technology Comprehensive Demonstration Base.

Pieces of experimental fields are neatly arranged, and the "identity cards" indicating the varieties are inserted at the head of the fields.

  "In the demonstration base, screening tests for new high-quality, high-yield, disease-resistant wheat varieties are being conducted. The company invests more than 10 million yuan in research and development every year, accounting for about 8% of sales revenue." Xia Zhonghua, general manager of Jiangsu Ruihua Agricultural Technology Co., Ltd., introduced the company's latest The selected "Ruihuamai 549" is expected to produce 750 kilograms per mu of high-yield fields.

The company cooperates with more than 30 large local grain growers, driving the growers to increase their income by more than 100 yuan per mu.

  In recent years, Sucheng District has vigorously promoted the construction of "Seed Source Sucheng", investing about 50 million yuan in breeding innovation and research and development each year, building a germplasm resource bank of 2,000 cubic meters, and storing more than 30,000 germplasm resources, realizing the realization of the main crop varieties. self-sufficiency.

  "Golden seeds" allow farmers to harvest more grain with less money, and the rich new varieties also give grain farmers more choices.

  In the middle of winter, the wheat field outside Laoyazhang Village, Juqiao Town, Qibin District, Hebi City, Henan Province is full of greenery. Wang Guoxiang, a large grain grower, is squatting in the wheat field, picking up the wheat seedlings and checking the growth of the wheat.

  The more than 200 mu of land contracted by Wang Guoxiang is planted with wheat "Bainong 4199" this year.

Wang Guoxiang is very familiar with the characteristics of this variety: "High photosynthetic efficiency, high light saturation point, low compensation point, resistant to strong light and weak light, and also resistant to disease, lodging, and high temperature." He introduced to reporters in detail, " Although the yield of this variety is not the highest, after several years of trials, it has the characteristics of stable yield and early maturity, and is the most suitable for large-scale planting."

  Wang Guoxiang, who has worked in the farmland for more than 20 years, has a deep understanding of the importance of seeds: "Although the more than 300 mu of land I have transferred is contiguous, the cultivated land itself varies greatly, and some plots are more dry. , some plots are not fertile enough, and some plots are far away from the water source. In the past, all plots could only be planted with the same variety, and the yield could not be guaranteed.” Now, with the development of the seed industry, more than a dozen new crops appear on the market every year. Variety, Wang Guoxiang can choose different varieties to plant according to the actual situation of the land, "Drought land should be planted with drought-resistant varieties, and poorly drained land should be planted with flood-resistant varieties. In this way, the output of each mu of land can be maximized. This is something that was unimaginable in the past.”

  More and more farmers realize the importance of seeds.

In recent years, the Hebi Municipal Bureau of Agriculture and Rural Affairs has insisted on taking the seed industry as the basis for the high-quality development of agriculture, and the coverage rate of crops, livestock and poultry varieties in the city has reached more than 98%.

  Good seeds produce good grain, and the development of the seed industry strongly supports grain harvests year after year.

At present, my country's rice, wheat, and soybean production are all independently selected and bred, and the proportion of corn independently selected varieties has increased from 85% to 91%.

Unified seed supply, good land support, to ensure farmers increase production and income

  This year's autumn harvest, at the demonstration site of soybean and corn strip compound planting in Dazhou Village, Xindian Town, Yucheng City, Shandong Province, after the technical personnel harvested, removed impurities, and measured water, the actual yield of corn was 633.8 kg per mu and the yield of soybean was 165.1 kg per mu, reaching the " The expected goal is to basically not reduce the yield of corn and increase the income of a season of beans. The average net income of farmers per mu is more than 330 yuan.

  The selection of good varieties is the key to increase production and improve quality in demonstration sites this year.

Gai Junyi, an academician of the Chinese Academy of Engineering, said that "Qihuang 34" is a soybean variety that is very suitable for Yucheng.

  How do good seeds enter thousands of households?

Yucheng's approach is to provide seeds uniformly.

  Li Chengqiang, deputy director of the Yucheng Agriculture and Rural Bureau, said: "Promoting soybean-corn strip compound planting and uniform seed supply can ensure the quality of seeds, and it is also conducive to the rational distribution of varieties."

  In the autumn of 2021, Yucheng City and Shandong Shengfeng Seed Industry Technology Co., Ltd. signed a purchase agreement for the "Qihuang 34" variety to reserve good varieties for soybean-corn belt compound planting.

"'Qihuang 34' is shade-tolerant, and it is not easy to fry pods. It sits high and is suitable for machine harvesting." Li Chengqiang said, not only that, but the yield and quality of this variety are good, with a protein content of more than 42%.

  After the promotion and planting of new varieties, good fields and good technology are needed to maximize the effectiveness of good seeds.

  Yucheng implements the construction of standardized fertile land throughout the region, realizing the deep integration of man, machine and land.

Ten teams including the Chinese Academy of Sciences and Sichuan Agricultural University set up more than 200 soybean experimental fields in Yucheng to help scientific and technological workers test out suitable planting methods and technologies when developing and promoting improved varieties.

Li Chengqiang said: "Through breeding to increase soybean yield, increase added value, and increase farmers' enthusiasm for planting, there is great potential for the revitalization of the soybean industry."

  Letting farmers see for themselves the benefits of good seeds is also the key to promoting them.

  In Hao Village, Xiaoji Town, Xinxiang County, Henan Province, Jiang Guotian, a major grain grower, planted 90 mu of soybeans this year, using the new variety "Zhoudou 25".

  "The yield per mu has reached 450 catties, an increase of 40 catties compared to last year, and an increase of 128 yuan in income." Jiang Guotian said, "This summer is rainy, and the seeds were planted late. I really didn't expect to be able to increase production and income. This is all thanks to good seeds."

  "Zhoudou 25" is a soybean variety promoted by Henan Kelin Seed Industry Company.

The company first set up demonstration sites and test fields in Henan, Jiangsu, Anhui and other places, and farmers can see the effect of increasing production in the test fields with their own eyes.

At the same time, the company will teach farmers supporting cultivation techniques such as increasing base fertilizer and strengthening medium-term chemical control through technical services during production.

After taking these measures, the yield per unit area of ​​"Zhoudou 25" has been among the best in the promotion area for three consecutive years, and has achieved good economic and social benefits.

  At present, my country's grain crops have basically achieved full coverage. In the past five years, the seed production area of ​​my country's grain crops, including rice, wheat, corn, and soybeans, has stabilized at more than 21.5 million mu, with an average annual seed production of more than 9 billion kilograms.

The policy plays a combined punch, and the whole chain promotes the high-quality development of the seed industry

  The rice has high quality, good taste and high yield. The high-quality rice series selected by Jiangxi Hongyi Industrial Technology Co., Ltd. have won a good reputation in the market.

"Before our research and development, the test results were good, and we planned to expand the planting scale, but we encountered difficulties for funds. Thanks to the successful loan of 9 million yuan from the 'Caiyuan Credit Link', we solved our urgent need." Peng Chao, the person in charge of the company, said.

  The policy is powerful, so that the enthusiasm of various main players in breeding and using seeds has been effectively improved.

  "I planted more than 110 mu of rice this year. Because of the good seeds and scientific and careful management, the yield per mu is over a thousand catties." said Deng Kaiqi, a major grain grower in Chenliutian Village, Wucheng Town, Tongbai County, Henan Province.

  The planting area of ​​autumn grain in Tongbai County has remained at more than 460,000 mu all year round, with a total output of 184,000 tons. However, since the wheat harvest this year, the county has continued to suffer from drought.

In order to alleviate the impact of drought on autumn grain production, the county set up special work funds to support the introduction of new varieties such as rice, corn, and soybeans; built 8 grassroots agricultural technology extension regional stations throughout the county, and selected more than 80 scientific and technological personnel to support demonstration households Provide technical guidance on the cultivation of new varieties; at the same time, strengthen production supervision, ensure the quality of varieties, crack down on counterfeit and inferior varieties, purify the seed market, and safeguard the interests of farmers. This year, the total grain output has increased by more than 8%, ensuring an increase in production and income.

  Aim at the whole industrial chain and make precise efforts to strengthen the collection and protection of germplasm resources, so as to lay a more solid foundation for the granary of a big country.

  "Crop germplasm resources are the source of provenance security and original technological innovation in the seed industry, and effective preservation is crucial." Li Lihui, director of the Crop Germplasm Resources Center of the Institute of Crop Science, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, introduced that in recent years, my country's crop germplasm resources protection The conservation and utilization work has achieved positive results, and the preservation quality ranks among the top in the world. 530,000 germplasm resources have been preserved, of which my country's unique local varieties and wild resources account for 70% of the total. The genetic diversity and specificity are rich, and the potential for utilization is huge.

  At present, the field tasks of the national germplasm resources census are being completed, and 120,000 copies of agricultural germplasm resources have been collected, 330,000 copies of livestock and poultry genetic materials, and 50,000 copies of aquatic genetic materials have been produced.

Carry out innovative research in the seed industry, and approve a batch of green, special-purpose and salt-resistant wheat varieties.

  Accelerating the revitalization of the seed industry is inseparable from the leadership of leading enterprises.

In August of this year, the General Office of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs issued the "Notice on Supporting the Development of National Seed Industry Enterprises", and selected 69 crops, 86 livestock and poultry, and 121 aquatic seed enterprises from nearly 30,000 seed enterprises. Make a batch of leading companies in the seed industry better and stronger, and accelerate the creation of the backbone of the seed industry revitalization.

  The reporter learned from the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs: In the next step, my country will further implement the promotion of seed industry bases, accelerate the construction of modern seed industry bases, improve the breeding of improved varieties and emergency security systems, realize the independent control of the source of important agricultural products, and ensure the safety of agricultural production seeds. Guarantee the security of seed supply and national food security.