【Ten years answer sheet】

 On October 7th, the Yongding River, which flows through Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei, Jinmeng and Mongolia, sent people a message of revival and vitality of a river with a singing and galloping attitude. At 10:00 this morning, with the Tianjin Qujiadian Water Conservancy The hub opens the gate to release water, crosses the Loess Plateau and flows through the scenic spot of Yanjing Yongding River in autumn. The ecological water replenishment head here joins the Yongding New River and joins the Bohai Sea, marking the Yongding River's 865-kilometer watercourse this spring. On the basis of 109 days of water, the whole line of water was once again realized.

  This is an important manifestation of the recovery of the ecological environment of the Yongding River that has been dry for many years, and it is also a vivid epitome of the new appearance of rivers and lakes.

  my country is one of the countries with the most complex water conditions, the most difficult river governance and the most arduous task of water governance in the world due to the shortage of water resources, extremely uneven distribution of time and space, and frequent floods and droughts.

Since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, General Secretary Xi Jinping has put forward the idea of ​​"water saving priority, space balance, systematic governance, and two-handed efforts" to control water, established the national "river strategy", and planned major water conservancy projects such as the national water network. Historic achievements, historic changes.

  In the past ten years, my country's flood and drought disaster prevention capability has achieved an overall leap, the problem of rural drinking water safety has been historically solved, the water resource utilization method has achieved deep-level changes, the water resource allocation pattern has been globally optimized, the appearance of rivers and lakes has been fundamentally improved, and water conservancy Governance capabilities have been systematically improved.

1. Flood and drought disaster defense capability has jumped as a whole

  This is the figure of a group of reservoirs "joining operations" - in response to the severe summer and autumn droughts in the Yangtze River Basin since July, the Ministry of Water Resources dispatched the upper reaches of the Yangtze River, the Dongting Lake water system reservoir group, and the Poyang Lake water system reservoir group in mid-August. After accumulative water replenishment of 3.57 billion cubic meters in the downstream, on September 12, the special operation of joint dispatching of reservoirs in the Yangtze River basin for drought relief and water supply was launched again, with plans to replenish 1.78 billion cubic meters of water downstream.

  This is another "copper wall" built by a group of reservoirs. In June this year, large floods occurred continuously in the Pearl River. Among them, the Beijiang River suffered the largest flood since 1915. The water conservancy department jointly dispatched the Xijiang Longtan, Datang Gorge and Beijiang River. 37 backbone reservoirs including Feilai Gorge and other main and tributaries intercepted floods and staggered peaks, resolutely activated the flood storage and detention area of ​​the Fujiang River, and timely used Beijiang Lubao Gate and Southwest Gate to divert the flood, avoiding the bad floods of the Xijiang and Beijiang, and ensuring the Xijiang River. , Beijiang embankment and Guangzhou City, the Pearl River Delta flood control safety.

  Replenishing water in times of drought, blocking floods in times of flooding, and coping with drought and flood conditions, we can play the "hard card" of reservoir group scheduling, thanks to the continuous improvement of the flood control and drought relief engineering system in the basin.

  Since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, my country has continuously strengthened the construction of flood and drought disaster prevention capabilities.

In terms of engineering, large rivers have basically formed a basin flood control engineering system consisting of river channels, dykes, reservoirs, flood storage and detention areas, etc. Through comprehensive measures of "blocking, dividing, storing, stagnant, and draining", they have basically been able to defend against the actual occurrences since the founding of New China. The annual water supply capacity of national water conservancy projects reaches 890 billion cubic meters. By comprehensively adopting measures such as “storage, diversion, lift, and transfer”, the safety of urban and rural water supply can be ensured and drought losses can be minimized.

In terms of non-engineering measures, the monitoring, forecasting and early warning capabilities have been significantly improved. Various hydrological stations across the country have increased from more than 70,000 in 2012 to 120,000 in 2021, and the collection of national station information has been shortened from 30 minutes to 15 minutes.

  Through the comprehensive use of engineering and non-engineering measures, it has successfully overcome many major floods and severe droughts.

Li Guoying, Minister of Water Resources, said that the water conservancy department insists on putting people first and life first, continuously improving the flood control engineering system in the river basin, strengthening forecasting, early warning, and pre-planning measures, and scientifically and finely dispatching water conservancy projects. A decade's 0.57% fell to 0.31%.

2. The level of water supply security has been greatly improved

  "It used to be 1 kilometer away to back the water, but now every household has tap water, which is so convenient!" said Nanga Zhuoma, a villager in Rengong Village, Pulan County, Ngari Prefecture, Tibet Autonomous Region.

  Since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, the Ministry of Water Resources has vigorously implemented the construction of rural water supply projects in conjunction with various localities. A total of 466.7 billion yuan has been invested in rural water supply projects, solving the problem of drinking water safety for 280 million rural residents, and consolidating and improving the water supply security level for 340 million rural people. , the penetration rate of tap water in rural areas reached 84%, an increase of 19 percentage points compared with 2012, and the problem that the majority of farmers can only eat water by carrying them on their shoulders has been solved historically.

  Chen Mingzhong, director of the Rural Water Conservancy and Hydropower Department of the Ministry of Water Resources, said that, firstly, a complete water supply engineering system has been established. By the end of 2021, a total of 8.27 million rural water supply projects will be built across the country, serving a population of 900 million.

The second is to resolutely win the battle against rural drinking water safety and poverty alleviation, and comprehensively solve the drinking water safety problem of 17.1 million registered poor people. Many farmers and herdsmen in poverty-stricken areas have achieved progress from buckets to water pipes.

The third is to bid farewell to the problem of water-related diseases, and properly solve the problems of 9.75 million rural population with excessive fluoride in drinking water and 1.2 million of brackish water.

Fourth, the management responsibility system has been improved, and the long-term operation system and mechanism of the project have been continuously improved.

  The change in "drinking water" is not only reflected in people, but also in the fields of Qianmo.

  Since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, my country has invested a total of about 150 billion yuan in central funds for the construction and renovation of irrigation areas, laying a solid foundation for water conservancy for securing China's rice bowl.

A relatively complete network system of storage, diversion, lifting, transportation and drainage projects has been established, and 7,330 large and medium-sized irrigation districts covering more than 10,000 mu have been built nationwide.

A series of backbone projects such as canal systems and supporting buildings, irrigation and drainage pumping stations, aqueducts, and drainage ditches have been constructed and renovated. The length of the backbone channels alone is 400,000 kilometers, which is equivalent to circling the earth 10 times. Drought can irrigate, flood can drain.

The accumulatively restored irrigated area has reached 60 million mu, and the irrigated area has been improved by nearly 300 million mu, effectively curbing the decline of the irrigated area.

The effective irrigation area of ​​farmland nationwide has increased from 937 million mu in 2012 to 1.037 billion mu now.

  The ditches are crisscrossed, moisturizing the vast land; the gurgling springs flow into thousands of households, moisturizing the hearts of the people...

3. Rivers and lakes have a new look

  The Yongding River has been restored to overflowing, the Chaobai River has been restored to overflowing, the Hutuo River has been restored to overflowing, and the Baiyangdian Lake has regained its vitality. The intersection of a hundred years - this is the transcript of the comprehensive control of groundwater overexploitation and ecological water replenishment of rivers and lakes in North China that people can really feel when they walk through these rivers.

  What about transcripts that people can't feel?

The data clearly records: at the end of December 2021, the latest statistics compared with the same period in 2018, the shallow groundwater in the groundwater overexploitation control area in North China rose by 1.89 meters, and the deep confined water rose by 4.65 meters.

At the same time, the monitoring results show that since the comprehensive control of groundwater overexploitation in North China was launched in 2014, the accumulative groundwater recharge in North China has reached 8 billion cubic meters.

  The overdrafted earth "drinks" water, and the dry rivers "drink" water, and more and more rivers and lakes have a new look.

In fact, the method of "beautiful" for rivers and lakes is not only the comprehensive management of groundwater and ecological replenishment, but also the comprehensive establishment of the system of river and lake chiefs.

  In November 2016, the Central Office and the State Office issued the "Opinions on Fully Implementing the River Chief System", and in December 2017, the Central Office and the State Office issued the "Guiding Opinions on Implementing the Lake Chief System in Lakes".

Today, 1.2 million river and lake chiefs at the provincial, city, county, and village levels are on duty. Every river and every lake is managed and protected.

We have made great efforts to control the chaos of rivers and lakes, control the space of rivers and lakes in accordance with the law, strictly protect water resources, speed up the restoration of water ecology, and vigorously control water pollution. The appearance of rivers and lakes has undergone historic changes. Many watersheds are reborn.

  Clear waters and lush mountains are invaluable assets.

Since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, water conservancy departments at all levels have persistently promoted comprehensive control of soil erosion.

In the past ten years, a total of 580,000 square kilometers of soil erosion has been controlled, and my country's soil erosion has continued to show a "double decrease" in area intensity and a "double decrease" in water and wind erosion.

In 2021, the area of ​​soil erosion in the country will decrease by 274,900 square kilometers compared with 2011. More and more barren hills will be covered with green clothes, and more and more turbid water will become clear and blue.

  There are big rivers rushing forward, water conservancy projects rising from the ground, water pipelines to moisten people's livelihood, rivers and lakes that patrol the rivers and lakes... Splendid China spreads the picture of water beauty and people.

(Chen Chen, reporter from Guangming Daily)