Ten years of reform of the college entrance examination into a new era

29 provinces in five batches in eight years have entered the ranks of the comprehensive reform of the college entrance examination

  On June 27, Henan, Shanxi, Inner Mongolia, Sichuan, Yunnan, Shaanxi, Qinghai, Ningxia and other provinces announced the reform plan for the college entrance examination on the same day. From 2022, the first-year high school students enrolled in the fall of 2022 will start to implement the comprehensive reform of the college entrance examination. From 2025 The general college entrance examination will implement the "3+1+2" model.

  The college entrance examination has always been a big test that affects the nerves of tens of millions of people. It is not only related to the fate of millions of students. At the same time, behind a few seemingly frivolous examination papers, it also reveals the "how to choose" in colleges and universities and the "how to teach" in basic education.

  The college entrance examination carries many expectations of the Chinese people. People hope that it can not only become a channel for every student with a dream to move upward, but also can select high-quality talents for the country.

Since the resumption of the college entrance examination in 1977, the reform of the college entrance examination has never been interrupted: in 1999, the "3+X" subject reform was implemented; in 2002, the enrollment of ordinary colleges and universities realized full online enrollment for the first time, and in the same year, Beijing conducted an attempt to set its own questions; In 2003, the pilot reform of independent enrollment in some colleges and universities began; in 2010, the "Outline of the National Medium and Long-term Education Reform and Development Plan (2010-2020)" was promulgated, proposing the full implementation of the high school academic level examination and comprehensive quality evaluation.

  Since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, my country has promoted comprehensively deepening reform with unprecedented determination and strength, and the reform of the college entrance examination is also moving towards a deeper level.

  As General Secretary Xi Jinping said at the fourth meeting of the Central Leading Group for Comprehensively Deepening Reform in August 2014: To deepen the reform of the examination and admissions system, the general goal is to form an examination and admissions model featuring classified examinations, comprehensive evaluation, and multiple admissions, and improve the promotion of Equitable, scientific selection of talents, and effective supervision of the system and mechanism, to build a lifelong learning overpass that connects and communicates all levels of education, and recognizes multiple learning outcomes.

The reform of the examination and enrollment system should be carried out on a pilot basis, implemented step-by-step, and advanced in an orderly manner on the basis of fully demonstrating and improving the top-level design.

  The top-level design of the reform has been very clear, and the "battle map" is about to emerge.

  On September 4 of the same year, the "Implementation Opinions of the State Council on Deepening the Reform of the Examination and Enrollment System" was issued, and Shanghai and Zhejiang Province became the first batch of pilot programs. Implementation; 3 months later, on December 16, two supporting policies - "Opinions on the Implementation of the Academic Proficiency Examination in General High Schools" and "Opinions on Strengthening and Improving the Comprehensive Quality Evaluation of General High School Students" were issued.

  On September 5, 2014, on the second day after the publication of the State Council's Implementation Opinions on Deepening the Reform of the Examination and Enrollment System, Qin Chunhua, Dean of the Examination Research Institute of Peking University, wrote an article on the front page of the China Youth Daily: "This time the The reform has profoundly answered fundamental questions such as why, what and how to change, and it is the most comprehensive and systematic top-level design implemented by the state in the field of education since the resumption of the college entrance examination in 1977.”

  Since then, the reform of my country's examination and enrollment system has been fully launched.

  Three years later, in 2017, four provinces and cities including Beijing, Shandong, Tianjin and Hainan launched the second batch of pilots for comprehensive reform of the college entrance examination.

Then, in 2018, eight provinces and cities including Hebei, Liaoning, Jiangsu, Fujian, Hubei, Hunan, Guangdong, and Chongqing launched the third batch of reforms.

  In 2021, seven provinces, Heilongjiang, Gansu, Jilin, Anhui, Jiangxi, Guizhou, and Guangxi, announced the "new college entrance examination" reform plan, becoming the fourth batch of comprehensive college entrance examination reform provinces.

  In 2022, 8 provinces of Henan, Shanxi, Inner Mongolia, Sichuan, Yunnan, Shaanxi, Qinghai, and Ningxia announced the reform plan for the college entrance examination...

  From 2014 to 2022, in eight years and five batches, 29 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities) across the country have launched the comprehensive reform of the college entrance examination. Basically formed, most provinces in my country have entered the era of the new college entrance examination.

The biggest beneficiaries of the reforms are the students

  During the 2017 college entrance examination, Shanghai's college entrance examination essay questions became the focus of discussion.

  The title of the essay is this: Prediction refers to pre-speculation.

Life is full of variables, and some people are happy to accept predictions about life, while others don't.

Please write an article about your thoughts.

  People's hot discussion is not only due to the consistent attention to the college entrance examination, but also because Shanghai and Zhejiang, as the first round of pilot reform of the college entrance examination, ushered in the first implementation of the "new college entrance examination".

  While people are paying attention to specific topics, they are more concerned about the signals released by the reform.

  In an interview with a reporter from China Youth Daily and China Youth Daily, a first-line language teacher in Shanghai said that this topic focuses on real life while speculating, and guides students to observe and think about specific problems in life, rather than simple knowledge transfer.

  The college entrance examination proposition experts also emphasized that this topic provides rich logical relationships and levels for the candidates' writing content.

Even if candidates have selected a certain point of view, they can still have vertical and in-depth thinking space on the selected point of view.

  The "choice" emphasized by experts is an important signal sent by the reform of the college entrance examination.

  According to the relevant person in charge of the Department of College Students of the Ministry of Education, from the current five batches of provincial college entrance examination comprehensive reform plans announced by the provinces, the overall framework is the same, and the examination subjects and arrangements can be roughly divided into two models: "3+3" ” or “3+1+2”, the first and second batch of reform pilot provinces adopted the “3+3” elective mode, with the “3” in the front being three subjects of Chinese, mathematics and foreign language, and the “3” in the back. "It means that candidates have to choose 3 subjects from the subjects of physics, chemistry, biology, ideology and politics, history, geography, technology, etc. as the elective subjects for the college entrance examination.

  Since the third batch of reforms, the relevant provinces have fully considered the original local college entrance examination model, the number of students, the development level of basic education and other factors, and proposed the "3+1+2" selection test model, and "3" is still the national unified examination subject language. , mathematics, foreign language, all students must take the test; "1" is the preferred subject, candidates must choose one of the physics and history subjects in the high school academic proficiency test; "2" is a secondary subject, candidates can be in chemistry, biology, Choose two subjects from the four subjects of ideology and politics and geography.

Such fine-tuning "further highlights the basic role of physics and history in the selection and training of talents in the natural sciences and humanities and social sciences in colleges and universities, making the reform more accurately aligned with local reality, and better meeting local student growth and talent training. demand." said the relevant person in charge of the Department of Higher Education Students of the Ministry of Education.

  No matter what kind of selection mode, the biggest feature of the new college entrance examination is that it adds "selection" to "selection".

  After the "new college entrance examination" and "first show", Bian Xincan, then vice president of the Zhejiang Provincial Education Examination Institute, gave such a set of statistical data in an interview with a reporter from China Youth Daily and China Youth Daily, "In our 5000 In Yuren's questionnaire survey, 70.17% of college admissions workers and more than 60% of students and parents agree that the abolition of compulsory liberal arts and science and elective exams has expanded selectivity and promoted students' personality development."

  "Test their director, record their wishes", the reform has made students the biggest beneficiaries.

  Of course, the reform of the college entrance examination is not for the sake of change, but behind it is the change in the way of educating people brought about by the evaluation reform.

The relevant person in charge of the Department of Basic Education of the Ministry of Education introduced that in 2019, the General Office of the State Council issued the "Guiding Opinions on Promoting the Reform of Educational Methods in Ordinary High Schools in the New Era", which clearly stated that "all provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities) should jointly promote the comprehensive reform of the college entrance examination, and Formulate an implementation plan for the new curriculum of ordinary high schools, and fully implement the new curriculum and use new teaching materials before 2022." At the same time, adapt to the new curriculum reform of ordinary senior high schools and the comprehensive reform of the college entrance examination, according to the discipline talent training rules, the requirements of college admissions majors, and the interests of students. Specialty, according to local conditions and orderly implementation of elective courses to meet the different development needs of students.

It is understood that as of now, 26 provinces and corps across the country have implemented new curriculum materials, and the other 5 provinces will also fully implement new curriculum and new textbooks in the fall semester of 2022.

  In the field of higher education, a strong foundation plan was launched in 2020 to explore a talent selection mechanism that serves major national strategies.

The first is to focus on major national strategic needs and highlight the supporting and leading role of basic disciplines. The relevant colleges and universities will combine their own school-running characteristics, focusing on mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology, mechanics, basic medicine, nuclear engineering and nuclear technology, as well as history, philosophy, and ancient writing. Recruitment of related majors.

Secondly, actively explore the multi-dimensional evaluation of students in the college admissions process, convert the candidates' college entrance examination scores (accounting for not less than 85%), the comprehensive assessment results of colleges and universities, and comprehensive quality evaluation into comprehensive scores, and admit them in order from high to low. Reflect a more comprehensive examination and evaluation of students, and change the practice of simply evaluating students by test scores.

Thirdly, the students admitted to the Qiangji Program implement small classes and a tutor system, equipped with first-class teachers, provide first-class learning conditions, and create a first-class academic environment and atmosphere.

In the past two years, the Qiangji Program has recruited more than 12,000 people, and the quality of students has been fully affirmed in all aspects.

  In terms of vocational education, the classification of higher vocational examinations has been promoted, and a selection model for skilled talents has been initially established.

Promote the examination and enrollment of higher vocational colleges to be relatively separate from undergraduates in ordinary colleges and universities, and highlight the evaluation method of "cultural quality + vocational skills".

As of 2021, more than 3 million candidates have been admitted through the classified examination nationwide, accounting for more than 60% of the higher vocational enrollment plan.

Keep the bottom line of fairness and justice in the college entrance examination

  Time to 2021.

  On February 19, 2021, the Ministry of Education issued the "Notice on Doing a Good Job in the Enrollment of Regular Colleges and Universities in 2021".

  Similar "emphasis" appears in previous documents.

  In fact, the inclination to the central and western regions has long been under the overall planning of the state. As early as 2008, the "Cooperative Plan to Support the Admissions of Ordinary Colleges and Universities in the Central and Western Regions" was launched.

In 2014, the State Council's Implementation Opinions on Deepening the Reform of the Examination and Enrollment System, specifically written to increase the admission rate of college entrance examinations in the central and western regions and provinces with large populations, continue to implement the cooperation plan to support admissions in the central and western regions, and provide higher education institutions in the eastern region. Special enrollment quotas are arranged for students in the central and western regions.

At the same time, the special plan for rural and poverty-stricken areas will continue to be implemented, and key universities will recruit students from rural and poverty-stricken areas.

  For a society, education fairness is the most basic fairness, "bottom-line fairness" and "starting-point fairness".

Therefore, the inclination to students from the central and western regions and disadvantaged families is the embodiment of educational fairness.

  Authoritative data from the Ministry of Education shows that the continuous implementation of the special plan for key universities to recruit students from rural and poverty-stricken areas will increase the number of students enrolled each year from 10,000 in 2012 to 122,000 in 2021, with a cumulative enrollment of more than 820,000 students.

A third-party evaluation shows that the special plan has been recognized by many parties, with a satisfaction rate of 80% for colleges and universities, 90% for students, and 100% for local governments, forming a long-term mechanism to ensure that students from rural and poverty-stricken areas go to key colleges and universities.

  On the road of implementing educational equity, in addition to addition, subtraction is also required.

The college entrance examination bonus project is the most obvious reduction item.

  Since the 1950s, my country has implemented the policy of extra points for examinations, but in the process of implementation, there have been too many extra points, too large points, and even fraudulent qualifications, which have greatly affected the fairness and integrity of the college entrance examination. just.

Therefore, in 2014, it was clearly proposed that the extra points in the examination should be greatly reduced and strictly controlled, and the extra points should be set reasonably for the extra points that really need to be retained.

At the same time, strengthen the examination of candidates' qualifications for bonus points, strictly identify procedures, make public announcements, and strengthen supervision and management.

  In 2015, the Ministry of Education issued a policy to cancel five types of national college entrance examination bonus points, such as sports talents, middle school students' Olympic competitions, science and technology competitions, provincial outstanding students, and outstanding ideological and moral deeds, and guided local governments to reduce local bonus points.

In 2018, the above-mentioned reform of bonus points was officially implemented, and the number of bonus points for the college entrance examination decreased by 63%.

On this basis, in recent years, the Ministry of Education has actively guided all localities to fully consider the development of basic education, deepen the reform of college entrance examination bonus points, accurately determine the qualifications for bonus points, and reasonably reduce the value of bonus points, which has been positively affirmed by all sectors of society.

  Huai Jinpeng, Minister of Education, once said that in the new era and new journey, people's satisfaction must be used as an important test yardstick, and the principle of public welfare in education must be adhered to to further promote education fairness.

  On the one hand, there is more and more selectivity, and admission opportunities are inclined to the Midwest and difficult areas, and on the other hand, there is a tighter and tighter institutional cage. fair and just bottom line.

  In September 2021, the Ministry of Education issued the "Guiding Opinions on Further Strengthening and Improving the Enrollment of Art Majors in Ordinary Colleges and Universities", and together with the General Administration of Sports of the People's Republic of China issued the "On Further Improving and Regulating the Enrollment of High-level Sports Teams in Colleges and Universities". "Guiding Opinions" to start the reform of college admissions for art majors and high-level sports teams.

"It is necessary to create fair development opportunities for children with special skills in arts and sports. By further strengthening unified examinations and strict selection standards, we will guide colleges and universities to no longer blindly organize school examinations, and reduce the examination burden and economic burden of students and parents." The Ministry of Education related Introduction by the person in charge.

  The clearer the problem, the clearer the path to reform.

  On September 10, 2018, General Secretary Xi Jinping pointed out at the National Education Conference that it is necessary to deepen the reform of the education system, improve the implementation mechanism of morality and talent cultivation, reverse the unscientific education evaluation orientation, and resolutely overcome the need for grades, further education, diplomas, etc. The stubborn disease of only papers and hats fundamentally solves the problem of the baton of education evaluation.

  Reforms continue...

  China Youth Daily, China Youth Daily reporter Fan Weichen Source: China Youth Daily

  July 04, 2022 Edition 05