Enterprises with high risk of occupational disease hazards will be supervised

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  Data show that in 2021, the number of new cases of occupational diseases reported nationwide will drop by 43.8% compared with 2012, and the number of new cases of occupational pneumoconiosis will drop by 51.2%. However, more than 90% of enterprises still have occupational disease hazards.

How to prevent occupational diseases, improve diagnosis and treatment guarantee?

The "14th Five-Year" National Health Plan issued recently gave relevant answers.

  On May 20, the General Office of the State Council issued the "14th Five-Year Plan for National Health", which clearly proposed to strengthen occupational health protection, strengthen the source prevention and control of occupational health hazards and risk control, and implement key supervision on enterprises with high risk of occupational disease hazards.

By 2025, the pass rate for monitoring occupational disease hazards in the workplace will reach more than 85%.

  The reporter learned from the National Health Commission that in recent years, the high incidence of key occupational diseases such as pneumoconiosis has been initially curbed, but the prevention and control of occupational diseases still has a long way to go. Data shows that over 90% of enterprises have occupational disease hazards.

  Most of the patients with pneumoconiosis come from rural areas. How to improve occupational disease diagnosis and treatment guarantees, so that they can get rehabilitation services more conveniently and improve their quality of life?

  What if the labor relationship cannot be determined?

  Difficulty in diagnosing occupational diseases has always been a hot issue of social concern.

According to Li Tao, chief expert of occupational health at the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, the diagnosis of occupational diseases requires a comprehensive analysis of the patient's occupational history, exposure history of occupational disease hazards, and the detection results of occupational disease hazards in the workplace, the patient's clinical manifestations and auxiliary examination results, and differential diagnosis with other diseases. , in order to make a diagnosis of occupational disease.

  However, the actual situation is that many workers, especially migrant workers, often worked in many employers before the onset of the disease, and some workers even did not sign labor contracts with the employers, and they could not prove the labor relationship between the workers and the employers after many years. , and can not prove the occupational disease hazard factors and degree of harm that they are exposed to, resulting in the lack of necessary evidence for occupational disease diagnosis, which may eventually lead to the failure of occupational disease diagnosis, so they cannot enjoy occupational disease-related treatment.

  In this regard, the "14th Five-Year Plan for National Health" proposes to improve the diagnosis and treatment of occupational diseases.

Improve the occupational disease diagnosis and identification system, and optimize the diagnosis and identification procedures.

Strengthen the treatment and protection of occupational diseases such as pneumoconiosis, implement classified treatment and assistance, and implement basic medical insurance and basic life assistance policies for pneumoconiosis patients who have not participated in work-related injury insurance and whose employers do not exist or whose employment relationship cannot be determined.

  Over 90% of enterprises have occupational hazards

  The reporter learned from the National Health and Medical Commission that the number of newly reported cases of occupational diseases nationwide dropped from 27,420 in 2012 to 15,407 in 2021, a drop of 43.8%; among them, the number of new cases of occupational pneumoconiosis reported from 24,206 in 2012 It dropped to 11,809 cases in 2021, a decrease of 51.2%.

  However, occupational disease prevention still has a long way to go.

On May 9, the National Health and Health Commission released the 2020 national statistical survey data on the status of occupational disease hazards. Among the companies surveyed, there were 263,723 companies with one or more occupational disease hazards, accounting for 93.46% of the total.

Among the enterprises with occupational disease hazards, there are 195,618 enterprises with dust hazards, accounting for 74.18%; 117,943 enterprises with chemical toxic hazards, accounting for 44.72%; 239,911 enterprises with physical hazards, accounting for 90.97%, of which, there are There were 234,210 enterprises with noise hazard factors, accounting for 88.81% of the enterprises with occupational disease hazard factors.

  Among the employees of the surveyed enterprises, 8,703,800 workers were exposed to occupational disease hazards, and the worker injury rate was 39.36%.

Among the workers exposed to occupational disease hazards, 4,125,700 workers were exposed to dust, accounting for 47.40%; 2,410,600 workers were exposed to chemical poisons, accounting for 27.70%; 6,567,200 workers were exposed to physical factors, accounting for 75.45%, of which 6,262,800 workers were exposed to noise, accounting for 71.95%; 12,200 workers were exposed to biological factors, accounting for 0.14%; 47,100 workers were exposed to other factors, accounting for 0.54%.

  671 rehabilitation stations provide convenient services for 170,000 patients

  "Although pneumoconiosis is an incurable disease, by means of treatment and rehabilitation, it can be slowed down and the quality of life of patients can be improved." Fan Jingguang, director of the National Health Commission's Occupational Health Center, told reporters that there are many After treatment and rehabilitation, patients with pneumoconiosis can engage in some work within their ability and achieve self-care.

  From 2020 to 2021, the Ministry of Finance and the National Health Commission will build 671 pneumoconiosis rehabilitation stations (sites) in 28 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities) and the Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps.

170,000 pneumoconiosis patients (including migrant workers with pneumoconiosis) can enjoy sports rehabilitation, traditional Chinese medicine rehabilitation, psychological rehabilitation and other related services.

  Chongqing took the lead in exploring the establishment of the "seven ones" standards for pneumoconiosis rehabilitation stations in the country, which are to have a pneumoconiosis rehabilitation station stop sign, a doctor trained in rehabilitation treatment technology, and a nurse trained in rehabilitation nursing. , a rehabilitation place, a set of suitable rehabilitation equipment, a set of rehabilitation station responsibility system, and a set of patient files.

Through these "seven ones", intelligent management of patient rehabilitation is carried out, so as to continue to promote the standardization of rehabilitation service management.

  Hunan Province has combined the construction of the pneumoconiosis rehabilitation network with the construction of the basic medical treatment and assistance network for pneumoconiosis migrant workers in work-related injuries, which not only reduces the medical rehabilitation costs and burdens of patients, but also enhances the sense of gain and happiness of pneumoconiosis patients.

  Prevention and control should take into account traditional occupational diseases and new occupational diseases

  In fact, as early as December 7 last year, 17 departments including the National Health Commission jointly issued the "National Occupational Disease Prevention and Control Plan (2021-2025)", proposing that the overall goals of occupational disease prevention and control during the "14th Five-Year Plan" period are: By 2025, the occupational health management system will be further improved, the situation of occupational disease hazards will be significantly improved, the working conditions in the workplace will be significantly improved, the management of labor employment and labor hours will be further standardized, key occupational diseases such as pneumoconiosis will be effectively controlled, and occupational health service capabilities and security levels. With continuous improvement, the occupational health awareness of the whole society has been significantly enhanced, and the health level of workers has been further improved.

The "Plan" proposes 11 specific indicators and 8 key tasks to be completed.

  On April 25, at a press conference on the topic of occupational health, Wu Zongzhi, director of the Occupational Health Department of the National Health Commission, said that occupational health is related to the happiness and well-being of hundreds of millions of workers and their families, and the "14th Five-Year Plan" occupational disease prevention and control. The planning should take ensuring the occupational health of workers as the starting point and the end point.

Emphasis should be placed on two aspects, not only to do a good job in the prevention and control of traditional occupational diseases, but also to take into account the prevention of new occupational disease hazards.

  Wu Zongzhi pointed out that in order to change from disease-centered to health-centered, we should not only pay attention to traditional occupational disease prevention and treatment such as pneumoconiosis, occupational poisoning, and noise deafness, but also pay attention to work pressure, mental health and other issues, and The prevention of work-related diseases such as diseases of the musculoskeletal system should not only focus on front-line "blue-collar" workers, but also on "white-collar" workers.

  "It is necessary to give full play to the role of the inter-ministerial joint meeting mechanism for occupational disease prevention and control, and to implement the responsibilities of relevant departments and units." Wu Zongzhi emphasized that to implement the responsibilities of the Quartet, it is necessary to implement the leadership responsibilities of local governments, supervision and management responsibilities of relevant departments, and employers. The main responsibility of workers and the personal protection responsibility of workers.

In particular, it is necessary to implement the main responsibility of the employer. The main person in charge of the employer should be fully responsible for the occupational disease prevention and control work of the employer. It is necessary to establish and improve the occupational disease prevention and control responsibility system, strengthen management, improve the prevention and control level, and take responsibility for the prevention and control of occupational disease hazards generated by the employer. .

Ji Wei