This year is the decisive year for the construction of my country's space station, and it also coincides with the 30th anniversary of the implementation of China's manned space project.

There are more and more news, short videos, and film and television works about China's manned spaceflight.

Do you really understand the professional words about manned spaceflight?


  In a broad sense, in addition to products such as packages and experimental cabinets that are brought to the sky, the upper stage and fuel of a multi-stage launch vehicle before the separation of the upper stage are considered loads, but these are not all products that we actually want to take to the sky.

In a narrow sense, the payload mentioned in the manned spaceflight news report refers to the


, the instruments, equipment, personnel, test organisms and specimens that directly realize the specific tasks to be completed by the spacecraft in orbit.

  vertical transport

  Transshipment, also known as transfer, generally refers to the transfer of ship and arrow products, packages, etc. from one place to another.


vertical transfer

we often say refers to the transfer of the loaded rocket from the final assembly and test workshop to the launch tower by being vertically fixed on the launch platform.

  controlled reentry

  As the name suggests, controlled re-entry refers to a

spacecraft that re-enters the Earth's atmosphere after flying out of the Earth under human or automatic control


For example, after Tianzhou-2 is separated from the core module of the space station, after the platform status is confirmed, it decelerates from a circular orbit and gradually decays from a circular orbit to an elliptical orbit, and re-enters the atmosphere in a controlled manner of about 100 kilometers.

In the end, Tianzhou-2 experienced the disintegration of its hull in the atmosphere.

Then through the high-temperature ablation of the atmosphere, the Tianzhou-2 cargo spacecraft and the space station garbage, used gas cylinders, and cargo packaging will be burned together.

  launch window

The time range that allows the launch of the spacecraft is called the launch window

, and the launch of the spacecraft needs to select the corresponding launch timing


The selection of the window is

mainly determined according to the tasks performed by the spacecraft and the special requirements of the energy equipment and measurement equipment on the spacecraft, such as the requirements for the working time of the solar cell wings on the spacecraft, and the requirements for the detection effect of optical detection equipment.

  reset to zero

  Zeroing refers to a

failure analysis mode

. When a problem occurs in a certain link in the system, it is necessary to trace the source one by one from the first step to the last step, abandon subjective assumptions, and re-verify one by one until the problem is completely solved.

Specifically, it can be summarized as:

Accurate positioning:

If there is a problem during the test, aerospace technicians need to work together to analyze the data, create a fault tree, and accurately find the cause of the problem.

The mechanism is clear:

after the positioning is accurate, it is necessary to explore the internal physical laws of the problem and analyze the problem thoroughly.

Problem recurrence and effective measures:

After the analysis is completed, a computer simulation is required to first confirm whether the previously analyzed causes will cause the failure to occur again, and then verify whether the subsequent countermeasures are effective.

Inference from one case to another:

Finally, summarize the problem and think about whether there are similar problems.


  In general, an experiment does not completely rely on specific standard documents to judge whether it is successful (pure scientific research often even has no standard), but mainly based on the purpose of the experiment, design the conditions and methods of the experiment, and then operate it to observe the performance of the experimental product. Whether the desired or unknown effect is achieved.

  Test (Test) is to verify whether a product or component or material meets the standard (such as type test) based on existing standards (international, national, enterprise standards).

That is, it is known that the test product "should" achieve what result, and the verification operation is carried out.

In the Chinese space station, scientific experiments


technical experiments

  are often carried out


The former is called a scientific experiment because it needs to rely on conditions such as the microgravity environment in space to perform operations that cannot be performed on the ground.

The latter is mostly a verification operation for work that has been tested many times on the ground such as robotic arm transfer, so it is called a technical test.

  applied flight

  The so-called applied flight is relative to the experimental flight with the main purpose of verifying the technology.

The experimental flight

is mainly the limit performance of the experimental aircraft, and the applied flight generally does not fly to the limit performance.

For example,

the Tianzhou-2 cargo spacecraft

is the first application flight of the space station cargo system composed of the Tianzhou cargo spacecraft and the Long March 7 rocket. The first feature

is that the purpose of the flight mission is to provide supplies and carry out equipment testing for space application projects, etc. Work.

Second, the status of flight products has been verified by previous tasks, and the technical status is basically solidified.


The primary and backup are related to each other. The backup


  we often hear refers to the purpose of ensuring that in the event of special circumstances, they can play the role of all-round substitutes for the primary astronauts.

  In addition to the astronauts, the parachute used when the manned spacecraft returns to Earth also includes the main parachute and the backup parachute, which complement each other and ensure the safety and success of the mission.

  Have you learned these knowledge points?