Xinhua News Agency, Beijing, April 28th.

Question : The new vocational education law is about to be implemented. What is the prospect of vocational school students?

  Xinhua News Agency "Xinhua Viewpoint" reporters Shu Jing, Jiang Lin, Xu Zhuang, Sun Fei

  The newly revised Vocational Education Law will take effect on May 1.

  my country has the largest vocational education system in the world, with an average of 10 million graduates per year.

"Xinhua Viewpoint" reporters found that, on the one hand, the state attaches great importance to vocational education, and favorable policies have been issued in recent years; on the other hand, the problems of low social recognition and low education quality are still the main reasons for the lack of attractiveness of vocational education.

The newly revised Vocational Education Law addresses many practical problems and responds to social concerns.

Open up the upward channel to enhance social recognition

  For a long time, many people have a stereotype of "lower class" about vocational education.

  "Some parents used to say that they would rather go to the worst ordinary high school than a vocational middle school," said a vocational school teacher.

  According to the "Large-scale Survey Report on Vocational Education Development in China" released by the "Educator" magazine in 2021, the interviewed students and parents ranked "social recognition" at the forefront when choosing "the biggest difficulties faced by vocational education development".

  One of the reasons is that the ascending channel is not smooth and wide.

Yang Jinlong, a representative of the National People's Congress and a teacher at Hangzhou Technician College, said that many students still want to go to school if they have the opportunity, but there is limited space for vocational students to continue their studies after graduation.

  The new vocational education law is committed to opening up the upward channel.

In addition to the establishment of undergraduate-level vocational schools, the new vocational education law also reserves space for exploration in two aspects: the establishment of undergraduate vocational education majors in ordinary colleges and universities, and the establishment of undergraduate vocational education majors in college-level vocational schools.

  The relevant person in charge of the Ministry of Education said that this shows that students in vocational schools can not only study colleges, but also undergraduates. From the legal level, the development channel of vocational school students is unblocked, which will greatly increase the enthusiasm of students to go to secondary vocational schools.

  In addition, the new Vocational Education Law proposes to coordinate and promote the coordinated development of vocational education and general education, establish an examination and enrollment system that conforms to the characteristics of vocational education, and promote the integration and mutual recognition of learning outcomes between vocational education and general education. These measures provide students with different endowments. Many possibilities for success.

  Xiong Bingqi, dean of the 21st Century Education Research Institute, suggested that with the smooth progress of the vocational education college entrance examination, areas with conditions can further explore the establishment of a comprehensive high school integrating general vocational education, and offer academic and skill courses at the same time. Development planning independent choice, to participate in the general college entrance examination or vocational education college entrance examination.

Breaking the employment threshold and improving the treatment of workers

  The data shows that the proportion of skilled talents in the total labor force in my country is less than 30%. Compared with the 70% to 80% of manufacturing powerhouses such as Germany and Japan, the gap is still relatively large.

At present, many enterprises are facing a huge shortage of skilled talents, which is in short supply.

In the recruitment of graduates of Shenzhen Vocational and Technical College in 2022, the company's recruitment rate is about 7; the ratio of the number of school-recommended positions to the number of graduates of Beijing Electronic Science and Technology Vocational College is about 15:1 on average.

  At the same time, many vocational school students feel more or less "invisible thresholds" and unequal treatment in their employment and personal development.

  A national secondary vocational education satisfaction evaluation report released by the Chinese Academy of Education Sciences in 2020 shows that secondary vocational graduates face more employment barriers and the dilemma of "unequal pay for equal work", limited career development space, and high turnover rate. Employment stability is low.

  A vocational school teacher said: "I took a graduating class of more than 30 people. After 2 years of graduation, all of them have a resignation record. After resignation, only 3 people are still engaged in this major. The high turnover rate of vocational school students is related to It is related to salary and status, and it is also related to students' lack of career direction and meaning."

  In order to remove the employment threshold and create a fair environment, the new Vocational Education Law clearly states that employers shall not set up conditions for application, recruitment and employment that hinder the equal employment and fair competition of vocational school graduates.

Publicly recruited by public institutions for positions with vocational skill level requirements, the educational requirements may be appropriately reduced.

  The above report also shows that, on the one hand, enterprises believe that the ability and quality of secondary vocational graduates are no worse than that of employees from other sources. employers account for only about 10%.

  A super technician of a central enterprise told reporters that he has won many national awards and is a highly skilled leader, but his income still does not reach the level of middle-level managers, and his position has never broken through the team level.

Promoting the Reform of Teaching Materials and Teaching Methods for Teachers to Improve Teaching Quality

  The low quality of running schools is also an important reason for the lack of attractiveness of vocational schools.

  "To solve the problem of the quality of running schools in vocational colleges lies in teachers." said Xu Pingli, deputy director of the Vocational Education Institute of Shenzhen Vocational and Technical College.

  "The talents you want can't come in, it's difficult for on-the-job teachers to improve their academic qualifications, and part-time teachers are not easy to use." Chang Xiaoyong, executive dean of the Vocational and Technical Teacher Education College of Shanghai Second Polytechnic University, introduced that in 2021, all 70 schools in Shanghai will be trained. A survey of vocational schools and 19 major categories of teachers shows that at present, the main source of teachers in secondary vocational schools is fresh graduates from colleges and universities, and it is difficult for vocational schools to recruit suitable professional teachers from enterprises.

  The new Vocational Education Law proposes that the state establish and improve the vocational education teacher training and training system, establish and improve the vocational school teacher post setting and job (title) evaluation system that meets the characteristics and development requirements of vocational education, and the state encourages vocational schools to hire skilled masters and labor models. , skilled craftsmen, representative inheritors of intangible cultural heritage, etc. as full-time and part-time teachers.

  The relevant person in charge of the Ministry of Education said that the next step is to promote the reform of teachers, teaching materials and teaching methods.

Give vocational schools more autonomy in institutional setup, talent recruitment, professional title review, internal salary distribution, and disposal of proceeds from the transformation of scientific and technological achievements.

  In addition, the current lack of integration of industry and education, and the lack of deep and unrealistic school-enterprise cooperation also make it difficult for students trained by vocational schools to adapt to market demand.

  Zhao Shangping, secretary of the board of directors of Wuzhu Technology, a manufacturing enterprise, said that for some small and medium-sized enterprises, the cost of school-enterprise cooperation is high, but the benefits are limited, and the enthusiasm of enterprises is not high.

  Zhu Qingsong, deputy dean of the School of Automotive Engineering of Beijing Electronic Science and Technology Vocational College, introduced that some schools have difficulty in meeting the needs of enterprises in terms of equipment update, curriculum setting and teaching research and development.

  The new Vocational Education Law replaces the "integration of production and education" in the current law with the term "integration of industry and education", and uses 9 "encouragement", 23 "should" and 4 "must" to further clarify many measures, such as enterprises can set Full-time or part-time vocational education positions; the situation of enterprises carrying out vocational education should be included in the corporate social responsibility report, etc., and incentive policies such as incentives and tax incentives are also included.

  Zhao Aiqin, principal of the School of Vocational Education Center in Fengtai District, Beijing, said: "It is necessary to form a virtuous circle in which schools, enterprises, industries and regional economies promote each other, and cultivate talents that the market really needs." prosper)