Last week, the Iranian authorities closed the "Dogaron-Islam Qala" border crossing between Afghanistan and Iran, after the escalation of tension and clashes between Afghan and Iranian border guards in Herat and Nimroz, western Afghanistan.

The latest tension occurred at the Islam Qala crossing after the Iranian forces tried to prevent the Afghan forces from building a road near the border crossing and the Afghans seized a military vehicle belonging to the Iranian forces and detained their crew for long hours.

And after the meeting of the Iranian deputy ambassador in Kabul, Hassan Mortazavi, with the Undersecretary of the Afghan Ministry of Defense, Shabir Ahmad;

The situation at the crossing calmed down and reopened to travelers and vehicles. The Afghan forces released 5 Iranian soldiers and their vehicle, and the two sides agreed to a meeting to solve the border problems between the two countries.

A source in the Afghan Ministry of Defense confirmed to Al-Jazeera Net that 4 Taliban officials will go after Eid al-Fitr to Tehran to discuss border issues between the two countries, and there are orders from the Central Command not to escalate the situation on the border with Iran.

However, the tense relationship between the Taliban and Iran affects the Afghan refugees in Iran, and Daoud Qayumi, a former Afghan diplomat, tells Al Jazeera Net, "The more tensions escalate between Tehran and Kabul, the worse it gets for refugees in Iran because public opinion turns into a negative attitude toward them."

direct reply

Since the Taliban movement came to power in mid-August last year, there have been more than 10 border clashes between the Taliban and both Iranian and Pakistani forces, and experts believe that there are different factors and reasons for these clashes with neighboring countries.

University professor Asadullah Wahidi tells Al Jazeera Net that the neighboring countries see that Afghanistan is going through difficult circumstances and does not have a strong government and that it is preoccupied with its internal problems, and therefore these countries penetrate the common borders and enter Afghan territory, and the Taliban does not remain silent about these actions.

Security tension and clashes on the Afghan border with neighboring countries, especially Pakistan and Iran, is not new. During the period of outgoing Afghan President Muhammad Ashraf Ghani, Pakistani forces bombed areas in Kunar province in eastern Afghanistan, but the Afghan government was enough to summon the Pakistani ambassador, and it did not allow its forces to respond militarily and preferred The diplomatic solution, however, is different with the Taliban movement, as it responds militarily to the actions of the Pakistani and Iranian forces on the common borders.

Afghan security expert Najib Nankiel says to Al-Jazeera Net that during the previous government's rule when a problem occurred on the borders with neighboring countries, the security forces were not authorized to respond, but Kabul reviewed the response and usually did not allow the military response, but the Taliban responded immediately and did not review the leadership The central government is in the capital and wants to prove to the neighboring countries that the matter is different now and that they have resisted foreign forces, so how can they allow neighboring countries to attack their borders.

Multiple fronts

Since the Taliban movement took control of the commercial crossings between Afghanistan and Iran before the fall of the previous Afghan government, there have been 3 clashes between the Taliban and Iranian forces so far.

The source in the Afghan Ministry of Defense says that the first clash between Iran and the Taliban took place in Nimroz state because the Iranian border guards built checkpoints along the border. It was near the Islam Qala crossing in Herat province, after Iranian forces entered Afghan territory, and the situation calmed down after the intervention of senior officials from both sides.

The past Afghan government preferred a diplomatic solution in the event of a border attack from one of its (European) neighbors.

Even the northern neighbor of Turkmenistan, whose government has had relations with the Taliban for 24 years, its forces clashed with Afghan forces in the state of Jowzjan in northern Afghanistan. On both sides, calm has returned to the borders, and there is nothing to worry about. Turkmenistan is an important neighbor for us, and everything that happened was a misunderstanding and we dealt with the matter quickly.

During the 9 months of the Taliban's coming to power in Afghanistan, 6 clashes took place between Taliban militants and Pakistani forces in the provinces of Khost, Nangarhar, Helmand and Kandahar along the border strip between the two countries.

Durand line

Experts believe that the main reason for the clashes between the Taliban and Pakistani forces is the "Durand Line" that demarcates the border between the two countries, as Pakistani forces took advantage of the chaos in Afghanistan during the past decades and penetrated about 40 km into Afghan territory 20 years ago.

And the former Afghan Defense Minister Shah Mahmood Miakhil tells Al Jazeera Net that the current Afghan government does not recognize the Durand Line as an agreed border between the two countries and is in dispute with Pakistan, and that Afghanistan has been suffering for four decades of chaos and war, the authority of the central government has retreated on the border and Pakistan has penetrated into Afghan territory The Taliban wanted the Pakistani forces to withdraw beyond the Durand Line, but it did not accept this offer.

The border tension between Pakistan and Afghanistan is old and escalates from time to time (European)

The former King of Afghanistan, Prince Abdul Rahman Khan - under heavy pressure from Britain in 1893 - signed an agreement with the British Government of India at the time to define the areas of political influence for Britain. Which was drawn to define the areas of political influence with the "Durand Line".

The border tension between Afghanistan and Pakistan has escalated recently after Pakistani forces bombed Afghan villages in the eastern states of Kunar and Khost. Islamabad accuses armed groups of launching frequent attacks from Afghan territory. The Taliban denies harboring Pakistani fighters, but it is disturbed by Islamabad building a security fence on the border between the two countries. Its length is 2,700 km.

A source in the Afghan Foreign Ministry told Al Jazeera Net, "The Afghan government opposes building the fence on the Durand line between the two countries because it is not an internationally recognized border and we will not allow Pakistan to complete the process of erecting the fence because it separates the tribes that live near the line and we are committed to the Doha Agreement and we do not allow anyone, whatever to use Afghan lands against others.

By comparing the nature of the dispute between the Taliban, Pakistan and Iran, the dispute with Pakistan is due to the erection of the fence by Pakistani forces on the Durand Line and the activity of Pakistani Taliban militants near the tribal areas controlled by the Pakistani forces. As for the dispute with Iran, its main cause is drug smuggling and the wave of refugees who want to enter Iranian territory. illegally, according to experts.