The only black scalper in my country, why can't the "cow" get up?

  Bohai black cattle are the only black cattle in my country and have long ranked among the eight famous cattle in China.

In recent years, subject to many unfavorable factors such as insufficient seed conservation funds, low degree of industrialization, and low breeding efficiency, Bohai black cattle tend to be endangered.

  The number of purebreds is comparable to that of giant pandas

  Bohai Black Cattle is one of the three major black cattle breeds in the world. It is distributed in the Bohai Sea area of ​​my country. The main producing area is Wudi County, Binzhou City, Shandong Province. It is listed as one of the eight famous cattle in China by the China Fine Breeding Cattle Breeding Committee.

  Data from Shandong Animal Husbandry Station shows that Bohai black beef has high nutritional value, and its amino acid ratio is higher than that of well-known cattle breeds such as German Bavarian red and white cattle; under good feeding conditions, the quality of fattened beef is comparable to that of Japanese Wagyu.

  Historically, this type of cattle has been used for a long time. In recent years, agricultural mechanization has become more and more popular, and the enthusiasm of the masses to breed black cattle has declined.

As of November 2021, there are only 2,064 Bohai black cattle in Binzhou.

  Wudi County Huaxing Bohai Black Cattle Seed Industry Co., Ltd. is the only national-level Bohai Black Cattle Breeding Farm in China, with more than 600 breeding cattle.

Yang Zhangang, chairman of the company, said: "The number of pure-bred Bohai black cattle may be on the same order as that of wild giant pandas. One day there will be three long and two short in the conservation farm, and this precious species will disappear."

  Few people support, how to talk about standardization

  In recent years, Shandong animal husbandry and veterinary departments have done a lot of work to protect local breeds such as Bohai black cattle, but their powers are limited and their strength is insufficient.

Zhang Demin, deputy director of the Animal Husbandry Development Office of the Shandong Provincial Animal Husbandry Station, said: "We also want to develop it, but the overall number of breeds is too small and there is no support policy, so we can't do it."

  Today, Bohai black cattle still lack a mature industrialized technical system, and the economic benefits of breeding are not high.

The number of excellent breeding bulls and basic cows is declining year by year, and the level of improved breeding is low; the comprehensive disease prevention and control system is not perfect, and the risk of disease is high.

  In 2008, the Shandong animal husbandry department found that there were 1,737 Bohai black cattle registered in 8 towns and towns in Wudi County, and there were only 2 bulls, all of which were under 2 years old and were hybrid cattle.

There are only 4 pedigrees of bulls preserved by frozen semen in Bohai Black Cattle Original Breeding Farm in Shandong Province.

Song Enliang, chief expert of the Beef Cattle Genetics, Breeding and Breeding Team of Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, said that if a breed is to be preserved, at least 6 independent bloodlines are required, and one bloodline has 5,000 heads. Bohai black cattle are still far from this order of magnitude.

  According to reports, the breeding cycle of Bohai black cattle cows is 14 to 16 months, and it takes 36 months from pregnancy to slaughtering. The average living cost of a cow is 5,000 yuan a year.

Other breeds of fattening cattle can grow to 400 jin in half a year, and Bohai black cattle can grow to more than 200 jin at most.

All of these make farmers reluctant to pay attention.

  Few people support it, which directly affects the difficulty of establishing a standardized production system.

Once the black cattle suffer from infectious diseases, it is not easy to find professional veterinarians who can treat the symptoms.

From technical standards to lack of technical support, the improvement of Bohai black cattle breeds has been slow.

  Where is the road to protection and utilization?

  How to explore the development model of Bohai Hei Niu with both guarantee and utilization?

A number of interviewed animal husbandry practitioners put forward sincere suggestions based on their years of experience.

  Purify and expand the population of Bohai black cattle.

Hu Hongjie, deputy head of the Shandong Provincial Animal Husbandry Station, suggested that the production performance and descendants of qualified beef cattle should be measured in large-scale breeding farms, and purebred subsidies should be given moderately in order to expand the basic breeding population.

  Increase supportive policies for breeding cows that can reproduce.

Zhang Demin pointed out that for cattle raising, being able to breed cows is the foundation of all work.

It is hoped that the superiors will fully support the construction of breeding bases for breeding cows, fattening bases, and the expansion of improved breeds, so as to protect the core production capacity of basic cows.

Rewards and subsidies will be given to farmers who can breed cows based on the number of calves successfully bred.

  Support the upgrading and transformation of moderate-scale beef cattle farms.

Song Enliang suggested that the implementation scope of the standardized scale breeding project of beef cattle should be expanded, and a market access system for standardized beef slaughtering should be established.

In the downstream of the industry, focus on centralized slaughtering, brand management, and cold chain and fresh food, and accelerate the classification and grading of meat products.

  Excavate the meat characteristics of Bohai black cattle to meet the needs of special groups.

There are many saline-alkali soils in the original habitat of Bohai black cattle, which makes the meat of this cattle breed distinctive.

Song Enliang said that Bohai black cattle beef has become a special beef for athletes in Shandong Sports Training Center. In addition to meeting athletes' nutritional needs, it can also increase the body's oxygen tolerance.

The next step is to strengthen research and explore new directions for deep processing of black beef.

  Banyue Talks to Reporter: Shao Kun and Zhang Zhilong