"Occupational stress" is an important factor affecting occupational health, and the detection rate in some industries is more than half

"Occupational stress" is because of poor psychological quality?

  Our reporter Chen Xi

  Insomnia, depression, endocrine disorders, cardiovascular diseases... If you feel physical and mental discomfort under work pressure, it is likely that "occupational stress" is at play.

  "As soon as I got into the cubicle, I felt chest tightness and headache, and couldn't breathe." Lu Danning used to be a well-known media editor with a high salary, but recently he chose to leave due to too much pressure.

"I stare at the computer for a whole day. It is normal to work overtime until the early morning. The biological clock is also in chaos. It is difficult to fall asleep without sleeping aids. After a long time of insomnia, the whole person is very restless."

  In the new economic environment, massive information and fierce competition have broken the boundaries between work and life, bringing ubiquitous tension.

Compared with traditional occupational diseases with obvious symptoms and frequent occurrence in specific industries, "occupational stress" involves a wider range of people and seriously affects the physical and mental health of workers. However, because most of them are hidden injuries, it is difficult to define them.

  Is "occupational stress" an occupational disease?

  According to the "Law of the People's Republic of China on the Prevention and Control of Occupational Diseases", occupational diseases refer to "the laborers of enterprises, institutions, individual economic organizations and other employers who are exposed to dust, radioactive substances and other toxic and harmful substances in their occupational activities. disease".

  According to Wang Yongjie, a corporate psychological consultant, the "Classification and Catalogue of Occupational Diseases" includes 132 occupational diseases in 10 categories, which are basically limited to the scope of industrial production, and mainly focus on the health risks of the manufacturing industry such as pneumoconiosis and chemical poisoning.

Although "occupational stress" caused by social psychological factors is not currently within the scope of occupational diseases, it also belongs to "work-related diseases".

  "Occupational stress" is also called occupational stress, which refers to the physiological and psychological stress caused by the imbalance between objective needs and personal adaptability in a certain occupational environment.

"There are many incentives for occupational stress, including interpersonal relationships, career development, organizational structure, social support, etc. For example, shift work can affect blood pressure, blood sugar and metabolic rate, and the imbalance between effort and return makes workers question their self-worth, workplace violence, and discrimination. And sexual harassment can also cause psychological problems..." Wang Yongjie said.

  According to the World Health Organization, "occupational stress" has become a global epidemic.

A survey by the Chongqing Municipal Health and Health Commission showed that 54.89% of workers in domestic auto manufacturing enterprises had moderate or higher stress reactions; the detection rate of high "occupational stress" among workers in power supply enterprises was 52.9%, and the detection rate of female workers in labor-intensive enterprises was 19.4%. %-28.6%; 34.0% of employees of Internet companies have "occupational stress".

  Wang Yongjie believes that moderate stress is beneficial to stimulate workers' potential for work, but if they are in a state of high stress for a long time and cannot be repaired in time, it may induce physical and mental diseases such as anxiety, neurasthenia, gastrointestinal disorders, and cardiovascular diseases, which will not only reduce work performance, but also It even affects the quality of professional life.

  Exposing 'career stress' can be seen as mentally poor

  "The whole person is like a full bow every day, and the bowstring may break at any time." The words of Liu Haowen, a post-90s programmer, expressed the aspirations of many workers.

"The psychological pressure is too great, the boss is working harder than you, and the outstanding newcomers are cropping up again and again, how can they not work hard? But the more nervous you are, the more sluggish your brain will be, and minor diseases such as dry eye syndrome and thyroid nodules will also be affected. It's a vicious circle when you find the door."

  Under the endless emergence of new business formats, the troubles caused by "occupational stress" to workers are more persistent and hidden.

Zheng Guanghuai, deputy dean of the School of Sociology at Central China Normal University, said that some companies are excessively pursuing performance and even monitor the working status of employees through platform software, which causes employees to never relax and accumulate physical and mental exhaustion.

  "Occupational stress" has made many people suffer, but they dare not speak out.

"I dare not reveal my nervousness and discomfort. I will be accused of poor psychological quality and insufficient ability. No one admits that this is sub-health caused by unreasonable work intensity." Liu Haowen said.

  Zheng Guanghuai analyzed that traditional occupational diseases are concentrated in specific industries and workplaces, and the injuries are more obvious and direct, so medical treatment and systems can make systematic responses.

As a new type of occupational injury, almost all workers have different degrees of "occupational stress", and it is difficult to determine what kind of injury will be caused by work, which makes "occupational stress" difficult to detect, and also brings about coping and resolution. challenge.

  Do a good job in occupational health

  The injury of "occupational stress" has become increasingly prominent, but the relevant determination standards are difficult to break through, and the corresponding guarantees have not been incorporated into the current regulations.

A number of interviewed experts believe that with the progress of society, the understanding of occupational diseases is also changing, and relevant laws and regulations on labor protection should be revised in a timely manner, so as to work together to ensure the occupational health of workers.

  中国疾控中心职业卫生首席专家李涛说,一种疾病纳入《职业病分类和目录》需要经过系统分析论证。“我们正在开展调查,加强对于肌肉骨骼损伤、‘职业紧张’导致的身心问题等职业危害的研究、评价和控制,以应对产业转型、技术进步可能产生的新型职业健康风险。”

  “防治‘职业紧张’,企业是第一责任人。”王永杰表示,即便“职业紧张”暂未进入“法定职业病”范围,但相关保障措施在劳动法中有迹可循。在现实中,一些企业不把国家规定的8小时工作制、休假制度当回事,用人单位必须扭转观念,意识到员工的幸福感和企业的长期效益相辅相成。

  “除了完善政策、干预企业,真正为健康买单的还是劳动者自己。”王永杰说。“职业紧张”可防可控,劳动者要积极面对。一方面,与领导保持良好沟通,合理安排工作、不过分强求;另一方面,改善生活方式,保证充足睡眠和均衡饮食,强化社会支援网络,遇到困扰及时向家人、朋友倾诉。如果压力长期持续,而且症状严重,自我放松无效,务必就医或向专业机构求助。

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