Chinanews client, Beijing, November 25th (Zhang Yilin) ​​At the end of the year's physical examination, some people found that their physical examination report had one more item-"thyroid nodules".

Some netizens said that they have been troubled by this turbulent lady (small nodules) for many years. Will thyroid nodules develop into cancer?

Does a physical examination find that a thyroid nodule needs surgery?

Data map: outpatient building of a hospital.

Photo by China News Agency reporter Yin Liqin

Thyroid nodules "prefer women to men"

  In recent years, the detection rate of thyroid nodules has increased.

Not only has it become a disease accidentally discovered by many people during physical examinations, it has also become one of the most popular diseases in hospitals.

  According to Shang Hongqing, chief physician of the Department of Breast and Thyroid Surgery at Beijing Haidian Hospital, the thyroid is an important organ for human energy metabolism.

The thyroid is located in the lower part of the front of the neck, on both sides of the trachea, and is shaped like a butterfly.

  Thyroid nodules are one or more structural abnormalities in the thyroid gland.

In recent years, the incidence rate has gradually increased.

  According to the introduction of the thyroid cancer graded diagnosis and treatment service technical plan issued by the National Health Commission, incomplete statistics show that the prevalence of thyroid nodules in my country is about 18.6%, and thyroid cancer cases account for about 5% of the total number of thyroid nodules.

  In addition to the increase in the number of patients, as people pay more attention to health and the popularization of physical examinations, especially thyroid ultrasound and other examinations are listed as routine health examinations, the detection rate of thyroid nodules is getting higher and higher.

  According to experts, thyroid nodules are a "women over men" disease, and the incidence ratio of men to women is about 1:3-1:4.

  The incidence of thyroid nodules also has a certain tendency of family aggregation. People with a family history of thyroid cancer or people with thyroid cancer among their immediate family members are high-risk groups of thyroid nodules.

  In addition, patients with gynecological diseases and breast diseases have a higher incidence of thyroid nodules than ordinary people.

Photo by Xinnet reporter Zhang Ni in the data map

Your "little nodules" may be really angry

  Shang Hongqing said that at present, the cause of thyroid nodules is not very precise, but it is generally believed that the "curse" of thyroid nodules is related to these factors:

  First of all, people nowadays have a fast pace of life, high mental stress, greater pressure in life, and irregular life and diet, which can easily lead to endocrine disorders, stimulate the thyroid, and induce thyroid diseases.

  In addition, these "small nodules" are also related to excessive or insufficient intake of iodine and excessive exposure to radiation.

  Experts say that thyroid nodules do prefer negative emotions, and emotional instability may also induce this disease.

  Most thyroid nodules have no obvious symptoms.

However, clinically, thyroid nodules larger than four centimeters tend to cause local compression symptoms, such as compression of the trachea and esophagus, which may cause difficulty in swallowing or breathing.

  In addition, some thyroid nodules are also prone to abnormal thyroid function, such as hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism, leading to corresponding symptoms.

  It is worth noting that for many female patients, large nodules may also highlight the body surface and affect the appearance.

  Thyroid cancer in thyroid nodules may invade nerves in severe cases, causing hoarseness or coughing when drinking water.

Data map: The Wuchang bridgehead of the Wuhan Yangtze River Bridge. Citizens are doing square dance for fitness.

Photo by China News Agency reporter Zhang Chang

Do you have to have surgery if you have a thyroid nodule?

Can't eat iodized salt if you are sick?

  Although most thyroid nodules have no obvious symptoms, the possible diseases cannot be ignored.

  Experts say that the most effective way to check thyroid nodules is ultrasound. In addition, blood may be required to check whether there is abnormality in thyroid function.

  Most thyroid nodules do not require surgery.

However, if the nodules are large, have foreign body sensation, or have difficulty breathing or swallowing, affecting the appearance, or suspected to be thyroid malignant tumors, surgery is generally recommended.

  Shang Hongqing said that traditional thyroid surgery will leave a more obvious scar on the neck.

Now, surgeons are also trying to solve the problem of aesthetics while curing diseases.

  Now hospitals can use some minimally invasive methods, such as minimally invasive thyroid surgery through the oral vestibular approach, which can cure the disease while achieving perfection on the body surface.

It is suitable for the vast majority of early thyroid cancer and other benign thyroid diseases.

  In addition, experts suggest that although the five-year survival rate of the most common papillary thyroid cancer can be as high as 95%, this disease should not be underestimated.

  If you find that you have a thyroid nodule, you should relieve stress and relax your mind in your daily life; avoid excessive spicy food in your diet; strengthen exercise; regular follow-up, the most important thing is to find a professional doctor to formulate the best treatment plan.

  For adult patients, it is generally believed that as long as the thyroid function is normal, there is no need to excessively restrict iodine intake in the diet.

In addition, a urine iodine test can also help determine whether it is necessary to control iodine intake.