We who deal with threat analysis have for the past 25 years said that they may come, says Tomas Ries about the various threats that can affect Sweden and the outside world.

- The problem is that no one can say when they will come and what they will look like.

It can be quite banal like covid-19 or it can be extreme.

As it is not possible to specify the threats, it is of course impossible for the decision-makers to prepare for the costs, says Tomas Ries, associate professor of strategy and security policy at the Swedish National Defense College.

It may sound cruel to call covid-19, which has killed millions of people globally, a banal pandemic.

An airborne virus with a 30 percent mortality rate had caused total panic.

Something that according to Tomas Ries would have meant completely closed borders and in Sweden the food had run out within a few days.

Such a pandemic is to be reckoned with, but also some other threats.

- We must prepare for a pandemic that is much more contagious and more deadly than covid-19.

Or that the computer systems crash completely.

A threat that has become increasingly present is the global ecological catastrophe, the deepest catastrophe we are facing.