Xinhua News Agency, Beijing, October 24 -

Title: Ten Questions Chinese economy

  Xinhua News Agency reporter

  2021 is the first year of the "14th Five-Year Plan" and the beginning of the new journey of building a modern socialist country in an all-round way. The development trend of China's economy has attracted much attention.

  The main data of China’s economy in the first three quarters have been released recently. Facing the complex and severe domestic and foreign environment, China’s economy has maintained a recovery trend with major macro indicators in a reasonable range. On the basis of overall stability, it continues to “progress towards high-quality development”. ", laying a solid foundation for achieving the annual economic and social development goals.

  But at the same time, economic growth has fallen, commodity prices have risen, and power rationing in many places across the country... The global epidemic and economic trends have become more complicated, and some new situations and old problems are intertwined, and the risk and challenges remain unabated.

  Observing the Chinese economy, we must look at it from a comprehensive dialectical and long-term perspective, so that we can clearly recognize the general trend in short-term fluctuations, unearth deep motivation from pressure and challenges, boost confidence in bright spots and resilience, and consolidate majestic efforts to unswervingly promote high-quality development. strength.

  Xinhua News Agency reporters recently sorted out the top ten social concerns and hot issues at home and abroad, and interviewed authoritative departments and people to respond.

How to view the current economic trend and where is China's economic stamina?

  Compared with the year-on-year growth of 9.8% in the first three quarters of this year, China's economy grew at an average rate of 5.2% in two years. The year-on-year growth rate in the third quarter dropped to 4.9%.

  The 9.8% growth rate in the first three quarters is far higher than the annual growth target of "over 6%" set at the beginning of the year, and also higher than the global average growth rate and the growth rate of major economies.

It should be said that China's economy has maintained the momentum of continuous recovery since the second half of last year.

  However, compared with the 18.3% economic growth rate in the first quarter of this year and 7.9% in the second quarter, the growth rate of “breaking 5” in the third quarter has attracted considerable attention and even caused some concerns.

  What is the reason for the slowdown in quarterly growth?

  The base effect is a big factor.

-6.8%, 3.2%, 4.9%, 6.5%. The upward line drawn by the Chinese economy in the four quarters of last year indicates that this year's economic trend in China will inevitably be "high in the front and low in the back", and the slope is relatively steep.

  Short-term factors also bring certain impact.

Since the second half of the year, the domestic epidemic has spread in many places. Henan and Shanxi have suffered heavy rains and floods. Coupled with multiple factors such as the slowdown of global economic growth and high prices of bulk raw materials, the road to economic recovery has encountered difficulties.

  With sufficient control tools, the economic growth rate must be even faster. In the face of the economic downturn, the central government maintains its strategic determination, resolutely refrains from "overwhelming flooding", and adopts continuous efforts to promote green and low-carbon development and reduce Measures such as real estate and debt dependence have released policy signals not to follow the old path of extensive growth and firmly move towards high-quality development.

  "The slowdown in growth in the third quarter is a good thing for the Chinese economy in the long run." Germany's Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung commented that if China does not undergo these structural adjustments, economic growth will be faster, but the Chinese economy may not. On the right track.

  Observing the economic situation requires not only the short-term, but also the long-term, and the overall situation, so that we can see the future and discern the general trend.

  In the face of multiple risks and challenges, the "stability" characteristics of China's economy are still distinctive, and the bright spots are outstanding.

On October 23, at the main venue of the "Hundred School Recruitment" event held in Nanchang, Jiangxi Province, a graduate (left) talked with a staff member of a recruiting company.

Photo by Xinhua News Agency reporter Peng Zhaozhi

  The four major macroeconomic indicators of "economic growth, employment, prices, and international payments" show that the "basic market" of China's economy is still stable-

  The economy was still operating within a reasonable range in the first three quarters; 10.45 million new jobs were created in cities and towns across the country, achieving 95% of the annual target; the national consumer price rose by 0.6% year-on-year, and the overall price level remained stable; imports and exports and the use of foreign capital remained high growth , Foreign exchange reserves have been maintained at more than US$3.2 trillion for five consecutive months.

On June 8, the harvester harvested wheat in a wheat field in Pingyi County, Linyi City, Shandong Province.

Published by Xinhua News Agency (Photo by Wu Jiquan)

  The production situation is stable and improving, and the innovation momentum continues to increase——

  The increase in autumn grain production is a foregone conclusion, and the annual grain output is expected to hit a record high; in the first three quarters, the two-year average growth of production and investment in the high-tech manufacturing industry was both double-digit; the output of new energy vehicles, industrial robots, and integrated circuits were respectively year-on-year Increased by 172.5%, 57.8%, 43.1%...

On July 1, in the industrial robot production workshop of Nanjing Estun Automation Co., Ltd., located in Jiangning District, Nanjing City, Jiangsu Province, the industrial robot was undergoing a running-in test.

Photo by Xinhua News Agency reporter Li Bo

  Corporate profits have grown steadily, and economic benefits have continued to increase——

  In the first eight months, the profits of industrial enterprises above designated size increased by 49.5% year-on-year and 42.9% year-on-year; in the first three quarters, the recovery growth of fiscal revenue was generally stable, and the national general public budget revenue increased by 16.3% year-on-year; after deducting price factors , The national per capita disposable income increased by 9.7% in real terms, basically keeping pace with GDP growth...

  Under multiple tests, we must strengthen our confidence in development, and we must stay awake while we are recovering steadily.

  On the one hand, we must see that under the more complicated domestic and foreign situation, economic growth in the fourth quarter and early next year still faces many risks and challenges.

Among the four major macroeconomic indicators, the structural contradictions in employment are prominent, and the "scissors gap" between CPI and PPI has widened; in the "troika", there are still many factors restricting investment and consumer demand...

  On the other hand, we must firmly believe that even though the Chinese economy is facing more complex phased, structural and cyclical problems, we have the means and the ability to stabilize the momentum of continuous recovery, maintain strategic determination, and continue to strengthen the endogenous driving force of the economy.

  Facing pressure, confidence is more precious than gold.

  China is a super-large economy with strong resilience. This resilience comes from the competitiveness of nearly 150 million market players, from the integrity of the economic system, from the super-large domestic market and the unremitting pursuit of hundreds of millions of people to achieve a better life through hard work .

  At present, international organizations generally predict that China's economy can still achieve economic growth of about 8% this year.

  Looking at the general trend, we are fully capable and qualified to achieve this year's economic and social development goals. The general trend of China's long-term economic improvement will not change, and the Chinese economy will surely move forward steadily on the track of high-quality development.

What is the stamina of consumption and investment, and how should we play the game of expanding domestic demand?

  Consumption and investment are the "dual engines" for expanding domestic demand.

In the first half of this year, the contribution rate of domestic demand to China's economy exceeded 80%.

  Consumption is picking up.

In the first three quarters, the total retail sales of consumer goods was 3185.7 billion yuan, a year-on-year increase of 16.4%, maintaining a rapid double-digit growth.

In September, the total retail sales of consumer goods increased by 4.4% year-on-year, an increase of 1.9 percentage points from the previous month, and market sales further accelerated.

  With the spread of the global epidemic, the resilience of China's consumer market has become more prominent, and the main driving force of consumer demand for economic growth has become more apparent.

In the first three quarters, the contribution rate of final consumption expenditure to economic growth was 64.8%, an increase of 3.1 percentage points from the first half of the year.

At the same time, upgrading consumption has grown rapidly, and online consumption has continued to be hot.

  Consumption is also showing ups and downs.

In August, affected by the multiple outbreaks of the epidemic, consumption increased by only 2.5% year-on-year, and the growth rate dropped by 6 percentage points from the previous month, which was the lowest in the past year; in September, the epidemic was effectively controlled, superimposed on consumption promotion policies and the Mid-Autumn Festival consumption boost , Consumption further picks up.

On October 2, people played in Yuyuan Garden in Shanghai.

Photo by Xinhua News Agency reporter Wang Xiang

  There is no shortage of bright spots in investment.

In the first three quarters, national fixed asset investment increased by 7.3% year-on-year, achieving steady growth.

Among them, the year-on-year growth of investment in manufacturing was 7.5 percentage points higher than the growth rate of total investment; investment in high-tech industries increased by 18.7% year-on-year.

  However, it should also be noted that in the first three quarters, the year-on-year growth rate of total retail sales of consumer goods and fixed asset investment slowed down compared with the first half of the year.

The epidemic has repeatedly caused continuous negative effects on service consumption and contact consumption; due to the large increase in raw material costs and the impact of the epidemic and flood conditions, investment growth has slowed down.

  Taking into account the current volatile external environment and the possible decline in export growth in the future, it is more critical to stabilize and expand domestic demand.

  What is the future consumption trend?

In view of last year's base factor, the overall growth rate of consumption this year will show a pattern of "high before and low". In October and throughout the fourth quarter, consumption will continue to recover steadily. It is estimated that the total retail sales of consumer goods for the whole year is expected to reach 44 trillion yuan.

  On the whole, China's consumer market has huge potential, and the trend of upgrading is obvious. The foundation of consumption recovery is still sound.

On October 7, two young people watched a poster of the movie "Changjin Lake" in a theater in Beijing.

Photo by Xinhua News Agency reporter Li Xin

  What is the consumption potential of the Chinese people?

It can be seen from this set of data: Since the release of the National Day movie "Changjin Lake", the box office has exceeded 5.2 billion yuan, and more than 100 million people have watched the film. Foreign media praised this as "an amazing number that Hollywood movies cannot match since the outbreak." .

Tickets sold out quickly on the opening day of the Beijing Universal Resort.

The Wall Street Journal believes that "tickets in seconds" reflects the huge consumption enthusiasm of Chinese tourists.

  In the future, a series of consumption promotion policies will continue to be implemented: further stabilize and boost bulk consumption, accelerate the cultivation and construction of international consumption centers, increase the development of rural markets, promote faster and better recovery of the catering market, and accelerate the development of new types of consumption... …Consumption potential is expected to be further released.

  The steady growth of investment also has a supporting foundation.

In the past few days, major projects in Zhejiang, Tianjin, Hunan and other places have started construction one after another.

In the "14th Five-Year Plan" outline, the "road map" for expanding effective investment has been drawn up, and 102 major engineering projects have been steadily advanced.

In the coming months, the introduction of more measures to expand domestic demand is expected to accelerate the cultivation of a complete domestic demand system, further smooth the domestic economic cycle, and more effectively stimulate the potential of China's ultra-large-scale market.

Can the "highlight moment" of foreign trade continue, and how to stabilize the main body and order?

  Foreign trade, in the latest three quarterly report of China’s economy, can be said to be one of the most outstanding performance among many data——

  In the first three quarters, the total value of imports and exports of goods trade was 28.33 trillion yuan, an increase of 22.7% over the same period last year. In particular, exports in September were exceptionally strong, with a year-on-year growth of 28.1%, far exceeding market expectations, and their role in stimulating the national economy continued to increase.

  Since the beginning of this year, some foreign institutions and foreign media have repeatedly noticed the strong growth of China's foreign trade.

According to Reuters, China's supply chain resilience is hard to underestimate.

Barclays Bank analysts said that this reflects "continuous global demand for Chinese goods."

On September 28, the "Shanghai" China-Europe Express made its debut from Shanghai and sailed to Hamburg, Germany.

Photo by Xinhua News Agency reporter Ding Ting

  Under the impact of the epidemic, global trade has shrunk, but China’s foreign trade has maintained positive growth for 16 consecutive months, especially since this year has maintained a double-digit growth: in land transportation, China-Europe freight trains, known as “steel camels”, have accumulated more The 40,000 trains have become the "destiny tie" for countries to work together to fight the epidemic; in the first three quarters of shipping, the national ports completed cargo throughput of 11.548 billion tons, an increase of 8.9% year-on-year; completed container throughput of 211 million TEUs, an increase of 9.5% year-on-year .

On October 23, a ship berthed at the container terminal in Jingtang Port Area of ​​Tangshan Port (photo by drone).

Photo by Xinhua News Agency reporter Zhu Xudong

  The "highlight moment" of foreign trade stems from the "dividend effect" of China's effective epidemic prevention and control. It is also a manifestation of the fundamentals of China's long-term economic improvement and the resilience and strength of foreign trade.

  The biggest uncertainty in global merchandise trade comes from the epidemic.

China took the lead in controlling the epidemic, resuming work and production in an orderly manner, providing a good environment for production and export.

  Behind the dazzling data, it is not without worries.

Looking at the foreign trade data since the beginning of this year, from a quarterly perspective, the year-on-year growth rate of China's imports and exports in the first, second and third quarters showed a gradual decline.

On a monthly basis, the growth rate of imports and exports in September dropped by 3.5 percentage points from August.

This is the scene of the 130th Canton Fair taken on October 15th in Guangzhou, Guangdong Province.

Photo by Xinhua News Agency reporter Liu Dawei

  Taking into account factors such as the increase in the base of foreign trade in the second half of last year, it is a high probability event that the growth rate of foreign trade this year has fallen and the overall trend of "high in the front and low in the rear" is present.

In particular, the recent floods, epidemics, and power supply shortages in some areas have also imposed certain restrictions on exports.

Behind the surge in orders, insufficient capacity, high freight rates, rising prices of bulk commodities and raw materials, and pressure on the appreciation of the RMB exchange rate...If there are goods, there is no profit, and many foreign trade companies worry about them.

  How long can the "highlight moment" of foreign trade last?

  On the one hand, with the gradual control of the global epidemic, the resumption of work and production has accelerated, and external demand has increased, which will further boost China’s exports; but on the other hand, "one-off factors" such as the sharp increase in the export of epidemic prevention materials will also Fading gradually.

Positive and negative factors influence each other, and the challenges facing foreign trade are still not small.

  Looking ahead, although the growth rate of imports and exports in the fourth quarter may fall slightly, we still have reason to be full of confidence: the fundamentals of China’s long-term economic growth remain unchanged, and the steady and qualitative growth of foreign trade is well supported. The cycle promotes each other, the added value of China's foreign trade and the level of export products continue to increase, and a series of measures to stabilize foreign trade have been implemented successively to help alleviate the worries of foreign trade companies.

  According to monitoring by relevant departments, by the first quarter or even the first half of next year, key foreign trade companies will still have sufficient orders.

It is foreseeable that imports and exports are expected to maintain steady growth throughout the year, and foreign trade will continue to play an important role in boosting China's economy.

How to look at the supply-side structural reform and how to take the road to high-quality development?

  With the current complex and multi-deformation situation facing China's economy, how to deepen the main line of supply-side structural reform?

  On the evening of October 21, the National Development and Reform Commission announced that it will implement step-by-step and orderly advance energy-saving and carbon-reduction work in key industries. The first batch will focus on steel, electrolytic aluminum, cement, flat glass, oil refining, ethylene, synthetic ammonia, calcium carbide, etc. industry.

Workers check the quality of products at Hebei Xintiehu Petroleum Machinery Co., Ltd. in Renqiu City, Hebei Province on October 15.

Photo by Xinhua News Agency reporter Mou Yu

  The more the economic development is under pressure, the more clearly the essence behind the problem can be seen, the more it can highlight the determination and determination of high-quality development.

  Since the beginning of this year, the characteristics of China's high-quality economic development have become more distinctive, the economic structure has been adjusted and optimized, the quality and benefits of development have been continuously improved, and the momentum has continued to increase.

In particular, the utilization rate of industrial capacity is at a relatively good level, the asset-liability ratio of enterprises has fallen, the growth of short-board investment in education and health has been faster than the growth of all investment, and the results of the supply-side structural reform have continued to be consolidated.

  However, at the same time, affected by factors such as the accelerated recovery of the domestic economy and the rise in international commodity prices, some resource-based industries have once again shown an expansion trend. The "two highs" projects have started to rise, and the energy consumption intensity of the nine provinces and regions in the first half of the year did not drop year-on-year. Counter-rising.

  Relevant analysts warned that with the gradual control of the foreign epidemic situation and the recovery of production capacity in major economies, it is necessary to be alert to the rise of overcapacity after the export callback.

  These phenomena highlight that the supply side is still the main contradiction between the current and future economic work, and the supply-side structural reform must and still be the main direction of economic work——

  At the end of July, the Politburo meeting made it clear and resolutely to curb the blind development of the "two highs" projects; from the central ecological and environmental protection inspection to special inspections, many places were named and exposed; the power consumption of high-energy-consuming industries was strictly controlled.

Adhere to the positioning that houses are used for living, not for speculation, and do not use real estate as a short-term means of stimulating the economy, and accelerate the development of affordable rental housing...

  Following the implementation of a series of pragmatic measures: In September, the output of crude steel, steel, electrolytic aluminum, etc., respectively set a new single-month high in the first half of the year, and then continued to fall. The export volume of steel has also fallen from the high in the first half to 5 million tons. the following.

  "The slowdown in China's economic growth is not enough to prevent it from introducing a series of policies. These policies give priority to long-term structural reforms rather than short-term growth." The British "Financial Times" website analysis stated that the growth rate of 9.8% in the first three quarters , Well above the annual economic growth target of more than 6%.

This provides a "window of opportunity" for China to get rid of the traditional growth model.

  In fact, as early as the end of last year, the Central Economic Work Conference proposed that it is necessary to make good use of the precious time window, concentrate on promoting reform and innovation, and make a good start for the "14th Five-Year Plan" with high-quality development.

Taking a good first step in building a new development pattern and seeing the new climate, we must adhere to the main line of deepening supply-side structural reforms.

  To deepen the supply-side structural reforms, we basically rely on reforms and innovations.

Since the beginning of this year, from consolidating the achievements of “three eliminations, one reduction and one subsidy”, to promoting the construction of a high-standard market system; Business environment: From supporting the Pudong New Area's high-level reform and opening up to create a leading area for socialist modernization, to accelerating the construction of the Hainan Free Trade Port... Reform and innovation continue to be deployed, and efforts are made to break the barriers that restrict the adaptation of supply and demand and the flow of factors.

  Barry is only half of 90.

Deepening the supply-side structural reform is a protracted battle.

Grasp the general tone of the work of seeking progress while maintaining stability, firmly grasp this main line, work firmly, boldly, solidly, accurately, and never look back. China's economy will surely usher in high-quality development. Bright prospects.

How to effectively deal with the issue of power curtailment, and how to ensure a safe and stable supply of energy this winter and next spring?

  Since mid-September, power supply and demand across the country have been tight, and some regions have adopted orderly power consumption measures. From September 23 to 26, power cuts occurred in individual regions, which aroused widespread public concern.

On October 20th, coal miners in Qianyingzi, Suzhou City, Anhui Province were sieving thermal coal.

Photo by Xinhua News Agency reporter Han Xu

  Coal power accounts for a relatively high proportion of power generation in China.

Electricity curtailment reflects the tight supply and demand of energy, especially coal.

  From a global perspective, since the beginning of this year, with the normalization of epidemic prevention and control, the economy has gradually recovered, and global energy demand has increased significantly; many countries have encountered energy problems, and energy prices have risen sharply.

  From a domestic perspective, the rapid growth in energy demand has led to tight coal supply and demand, and prices have risen sharply.

Large-scale losses in power generation companies have affected power generation capacity and willingness.

On October 21, at Wanneng Hefei Power Generation Co., Ltd. in Hefei, Anhui Province, staff monitored all aspects of power generation operation through a large screen.

Photo by Xinhua News Agency reporter Liu Junxi

  At the same time, some provinces have experienced strong economic recovery and rapid growth in electricity demand.

From January to September, the national electricity consumption growth rate reached 12.9%, and the electricity consumption growth rate in many provinces reached 16% to 20%.

Such a high growth in electricity consumption has brought great difficulties to power supply.

Especially in some places, the dependence on high energy-consuming and high-emission industries is still strong, and a large number of "two highs" projects have been launched, which has exacerbated the tension between energy supply and demand.

  In addition, the lack of water and electricity, and the unstable output of new energy sources, have also affected the power supply capacity.

  Right now, the heating season in the northern region has entered one after another.

It is predicted that the temperature in northern regions and other areas this winter will be lower than normal, and extreme weather may even occur.

  Can China ensure a safe and stable supply of energy this winter?

  Sword refers to the irrational rise in coal prices-On the evening of October 19, the National Development and Reform Commission issued three articles stating that it will adopt a series of necessary measures including the intervention of coal prices in accordance with the law to promote the return of the coal market to rationality and ensure safe and stable energy supply .

On the evening of the 19th, the main thermal coal futures contract "locked in" the limit for a short period of time.

In the spot market, the price of coal, which has been advancing all the way, has been lowered one after another.

  Accelerate the release of coal production capacity while ensuring safety.

Since the end of September, a batch of production coal mines have been approved, and the average daily output has increased by more than 1.2 million tons from September. The daily output on October 18 has exceeded 11.6 million tons, a new high this year.

This is a scene of night operations at the Tianjin Port Coal Terminal taken on October 11.

Photo by Xinhua News Agency reporter Li Ran

  The National Energy Administration recently announced that it will actively promote the merging of new energy power generation projects and the full generation of new energy power generation projects to further improve the power supply capacity.

  The market-oriented reform of coal-fired power generation on-grid tariffs has been further deepened.

The fluctuation range of coal-fired power generation market transaction price is not more than 10%, in principle, not more than 15%, and expanded to not more than 20% in principle. The market transaction price of high energy-consuming enterprises is not subject to a 20% increase. .

  This reform not only eases the operating difficulties of coal-fired power generation companies to a certain extent, encourages companies to increase power supply, but can also more fully transmit the pressure of rising power generation costs, curb unreasonable power consumption, and promote the transformation and upgrading of industrial structure.

  This winter and next spring, how can we ensure that the people will survive the winter safely and warmly?

  Relevant national departments have expressed their views on many occasions recently to fully guarantee the use of electricity and gas for the people's livelihood this winter and next spring.

  According to statistics, the electricity consumption of residents in China accounts for about 15% of the total electricity consumption, and the proportion of gas consumption for people's livelihoods accounts for less than 50%.

In order to ensure the stable supply of heat and electricity for people's livelihood and stable prices, the National Development and Reform Commission promotes the full coverage of medium and long-term contracts for coal for power generation and heating and gas for people's livelihood.

At present, the contract signing rate of most provinces has reached or close to 100%, and some provinces have confirmed the coal source for medium and long-term contract coal shortages, and are stepping up the signing of contracts.

  At the same time, relevant departments instruct localities and enterprises to prioritize people's livelihood, and scientifically formulate an orderly energy use plan to ensure that people's livelihood energy use is not affected.

In the new round of restructuring of the global supply chain, how can China take the initiative?

  Some countries have moved against globalization, and the global impact of the new crown pneumonia epidemic has been superimposed, which has brought unprecedented challenges to the stability of the global industrial chain and the smooth supply of the supply chain.

From the shortage of anti-epidemic materials and production shutdowns, to the insufficient supply of vaccines and the “lack of cores” in the manufacturing industry, the problem of supply chain risks is becoming more and more prominent around the world.

  The current "chip shortage" is just one of them.

From mobile phones, televisions, computers, automobiles and other industries to 5G, artificial intelligence, Internet of Things, and autonomous driving, many are plagued by the shortage of "industrial food" chips.

This also makes more and more countries realize that the layout of the supply chain cannot "put eggs in the same basket."

  Under external shocks, the longer the supply chain, the greater the risk of breakage.

When it comes to supply chain, the industry's hot words have changed from "low cost" in the past few years to "resilience" today.

More and more countries have begun to consider both production efficiency and industrial safety, and the adjustment of global supply chains has accelerated.

  The localization, regionalization, and decentralization of the supply chain have become more prominent: the United States, Europe and other economies have accelerated the introduction of manufacturing relocation plans to accelerate the localization of the global supply chain.

While shrinking the global supply chain, multinational companies have further promoted the regionalization of the supply chain to their neighbors; in order to reduce the risk of centralized procurement, diversify and decentralize global procurement, including increasing the source of procurement outside of China.

  Under this situation, will the adjustment of the global supply chain bring challenges to the security of China's industrial chain?

  As far as the Chinese market is concerned, there are indeed some foreign-funded enterprises in China that have accelerated their layout adjustments.

Especially after the outbreak, news that foreign-funded companies have announced the closure of Chinese factories has once aroused concerns.

  但要看到,跨国公司在中国的布局一直在动态调整之中,随着中国产业升级和生产要素比较优势的变化,有些跨国企业会离开,一些新的企业也会进入。但总体看,外资企业进的多、出的少,增的多、减的少。对于一些中低端产业的迁出,是经济发展规律使然,也顺应中国高质量发展趋势。

  此次中国及时控制住疫情,为产业链和供应链正常运行提供了稳定性和安全性,增加了跨国公司布局的黏性。有外媒报道,一批曾想离开中国的跨国公司,正打算把在东南亚的工厂尽快搬回中国。因为疫情发生以来,中国愈发成为“可靠的生产地点”。

  中国对外资的“磁吸力”与日俱增。据调查,90%以上的在华外企主要面向中国市场。中国拥有14亿人口、超4亿中等收入群体,消费市场规模和成长潜力无可比拟。再加上产业配套齐全、基础设施完善、人力资源丰富等综合优势突出,都成为吸引外资的磁力。

  日前商务部发布的数据也印证了这一趋势:1至9月,中国实际使用外资金额8595.1亿元,同比增长19.6%,继续保持了两位数的高增长,凸显中国仍是全球最佳投资目的地之一。

  作为全球第二大经济体的中国,又如何在全球供应链加速调整中掌握主动权?

  疫情冲击下,中国供应链表现出了强大韧性,但同时也暴露出一系列问题。未来聚焦产业链供应链断点堵点,提升稳定性和竞争力,重要而紧迫。

  强化科技创新和产业链供应链韧性,加强基础研究,推动应用研究,开展补链强链专项行动,实施产业基础再造工程,加快解决“卡脖子”难题,加快制造业数字化转型,发展“专精特新”中小企业……中国正在补链强链行动上不断发力。

  值得注意的是,增强产业链供应链自主可控能力,并不意味着走向封闭和内顾,而是推进更高水平开放,在开放合作中锻造更强大综合竞争力。

  深化要素市场化改革,充分调动生产要素活力和红利;加大对区域和全球的分散化布局,形成多维立体的产业链和供应链体系;推出更多扩大开放举措,打造更优营商环境,中国才能在全球供应链重构中占据更有利位置。

如何看待“做大蛋糕”和“分好蛋糕”,实现共同富裕靠什么?

  浙江高质量发展建设共同富裕示范区“亮相”,中央财经委员会第十次会议研究扎实促进共同富裕问题……

这是7月12日拍摄的浙江省嘉善市姚庄镇横港村(无人机照片)。新华社记者 徐昱 摄

  今年以来,随着促进共同富裕部署渐次展开,社会关注度持续升温。同时也出现个别偏颇的声音,把促进共同富裕曲解为“吃大锅饭”、搞平均主义,甚至“劫富济贫”。

  在当前的时代背景和历史条件下,为什么把逐步实现全体人民共同富裕摆在更加重要的位置上?又如何促进共同富裕?

  共同富裕是社会主义的本质要求,是人民群众的共同期盼。

9月22日,在浙江省建德市大同镇举办的稻田趣味运动会上,农民参加“挑稻谷接力”趣味比赛。新华社记者 徐昱 摄

  党的十八大以来,党中央把握发展阶段新变化,把逐步实现全体人民共同富裕摆在更加重要的位置上,打赢脱贫攻坚战,全面建成小康社会,为促进共同富裕创造了良好条件。现在,已经到了扎实推动共同富裕的历史阶段。

  我们正在向第二个百年奋斗目标迈进,适应我国社会主要矛盾的变化,更好满足人民日益增长的美好生活需要,必须把促进全体人民共同富裕作为为人民谋幸福的着力点,不断夯实党长期执政基础。

  促进共同富裕,也是我国发展的现实需要。当前我国发展不平衡不充分问题仍然突出,城乡区域发展和收入分配差距较大。新一轮科技革命和产业变革对就业和收入分配带来深刻影响,包括一些负面影响,需要有效应对和解决。

  如同全面建成小康社会一样,全体人民共同富裕是一个总体概念。

  从全面性上看,共同富裕是14亿人的富裕,不是少数人的富裕;是人民群众物质生活和精神生活都富裕,实现人的全面发展和社会全面进步,共享改革发展成果和幸福美好生活。

  从差异性上看,我国不同地域、城乡间的资源禀赋不同,每个个体的能力和素质也存在差异。共同富裕绝不意味着所有地区、所有人同时富裕,也不可能不同区域、不同人群达到整齐划一的收入和生活水平。

  从阶段性上看,实现共同富裕是一个长期艰巨的过程。要保持历史耐心,不能超越实际发展阶段;也要尽力而为,量力而行,把保障和改善民生建立在经济发展和财力可持续的基础上。

  实现共同富裕,在高质量发展中“做大蛋糕”是前提基础和必要条件。

  共同富裕不是养懒汉,要鼓励勤劳创新致富,为人民提高受教育程度、增强发展能力创造更加普惠公平的条件,防止社会阶层固化,畅通向上流动通道,给更多人创造致富机会,形成人人参与的发展环境,避免“内卷”“躺平”。

  共同富裕更不是“吃大锅饭”,要坚持公有制为主体、多种所有制经济共同发展,大力发挥公有制经济在促进共同富裕中的重要作用,同时要促进非公有制经济健康发展、非公有制经济人士健康成长。要允许一部分人先富起来,同时要强调先富带后富、帮后富,重点鼓励辛勤劳动、合法经营、敢于创业的致富带头人。

  实现共同富裕,有效办法之一是通过收入分配改革“分好蛋糕”。

  正确处理效率和公平的关系,构建初次分配、再分配、三次分配协调配套的基础性制度安排,加大税收、社保、转移支付等调节力度并提高精准性。其中,慈善等第三次分配是在自愿基础上,起到改善分配结构的补充作用,不是强制的,国家税收政策要给予适当激励,不能曲解为“劫富济贫”。

  在“分好蛋糕”的过程中,扩大中等收入群体比重,增加低收入群体收入,合理调节高收入,取缔非法收入,推动我国形成中间大、两头小的橄榄型分配结构,为经济社会高质量发展奠定坚实基础。

  实现共同富裕,将是伴随我国现代化进程的一项艰巨而长期的任务,必须脚踏实地,久久为功;实现共同富裕,也是我们这一代人“看得到、摸得着”的目标,激励我们更加积极有为地为之奋斗。

如何看待规范部分行业发展,强化反垄断和防止资本无序扩张将带来什么?

  近段时间,有关部门针对资本无序扩张、垄断等违法违规行为出台了系列监管举措。

  依法整顿市场秩序,促进公平竞争,是成熟市场经济的表现。一系列监管举措,针对的是“无序”,强调的是“规范”。

  近年来,在一些领域,资本无序扩张造成的负面效应开始显现:强迫经营者“二选一”“掐尖式并购”等行为挤压中小企业生存空间,损害公平竞争的市场环境;大数据杀熟、隐私数据被泄露等侵害消费者权益,引发公众质疑与担忧。

  面对市场乱象以及一些行业高度集中的发展态势,一系列监管举措是推动相关行业健康发展、促进社会公平正义的务实行动、必要之举。

  伴随着监管部门对一些行业加强规范,出现了少数“打压民营经济”的曲解和杂音,这是毫无根据的。公平竞争是市场经济本质要求,强化反垄断、深入推进公平竞争政策实施是完善社会主义市场经济体制的内在要求。

  国家市场监督管理总局发布的《中国反垄断执法年度报告(2020)》显示,从垄断行为看,涉及“滥用行政权力排除、限制竞争”的结案数量较多。从领域看,涉及公用事业、医药等领域的反垄断执法较多。

  这充分证明,反垄断,针对的是违法违规行为,而不是针对特定所有制企业,更不是针对特定所有制的特定企业。

  资本是推动生产力发展的重要力量。中国经济经过数十年持续发展,已经积聚起巨大的资本能量。防止资本无序扩张,就是要通过引导和规范,让资本服务于经济社会发展大局,在促进科技进步、繁荣市场经济、便利人民生活、参与国际竞争中发挥积极作用,而不是与社区商贩争夺最后一块“铜板”。

  应该看到,通过严格执法、完善规则,部分领域社会反映强烈的垄断和竞争失序行为得到纠正,防止资本无序扩张初见成效,也受到民众和业界的广泛认可。

  数据显示,在一系列政策引导下,资本的流向正在悄然生变,科技创新、新能源领域、高端制造业、产业互联网等成为资本布局的新取向。

  在发展中规范、在规范中发展,必将有效推动创新、促进共治。我国是公认的全球数字经济发展较为领先的国家之一,更需要通过规范治理促进行业健康发展。从构筑国家竞争新优势的战略高度出发,坚持发展和规范并重,更好推动平台经济为高质量发展和高品质生活服务。

  面对新形势新问题,要抓紧补齐短板,尤其是围绕平台经济、科技创新、信息安全、民生保障等重点领域加强研究,明确规则,划出底线,设置好“红绿灯”,为各类市场主体投资兴业、规范健康发展提供公平、透明、可预期的良好竞争环境。

巩固拓展脱贫攻坚成果如何有效衔接乡村振兴,全面推进乡村振兴怎样开好局?

  2021年,中国“三农”工作重心发生历史性转移——脱贫攻坚取得胜利后,要全面推进乡村振兴。如何守住不发生规模性返贫的底线,乡村振兴又如何布局落子,国内外对此十分关注。

  党中央决定,脱贫攻坚目标任务完成后,对摆脱贫困的县,从脱贫之日起设立5年过渡期。过渡期内要保持主要帮扶政策总体稳定。

  围绕推动巩固拓展脱贫攻坚成果同乡村振兴有效衔接,我国建立了防止返贫动态监测和帮扶机制,对认定的易返贫致贫人口进行精准帮扶、动态清零。

  做好政策、队伍、资金的衔接。保持政策的连续和稳定,“扶上马、送一程”,继续做好易地扶贫搬迁后续扶持工作。

  目前乡村振兴机构和队伍调整基本到位,30余项衔接政策稳步推进,确定160个国家乡村振兴重点帮扶县,出台多项倾斜支持政策,实施“万企兴万村”等行动。

  在过渡期内,继续坚持五级书记一起抓巩固拓展脱贫攻坚成果、衔接推进乡村振兴各项工作,并继续加强驻村帮扶。到8月底,全国在岗驻村工作队17.2万个,驻村干部56.3万人,其中驻村第一书记18.6万人;全国有5.2万名任期届满的驻村干部主动请缨,继续驻村。

  到今年9月底,全国纳入防止返贫监测对象约500万人。从监测情况看,应该说,能够守住不发生规模性返贫的底线。

  民族要复兴,乡村必振兴。

  全面实施乡村振兴战略的深度、广度、难度都不亚于脱贫攻坚,必须加强顶层设计,以更有力的举措、汇聚更强大的力量来推进。

6月13日,河北省衡水市阜城县崔家庙镇前砖门村农民在麦田收获小麦。新华社记者 朱旭东 摄

  布局谋篇的关键就是聚焦“两个确保”“两个要害”和“两个开好局起好步”——确保粮食产量保持在1.3万亿斤以上,确保不出现规模性返贫;解决好种子和耕地两个要害问题;全面推进乡村振兴和加快农业农村现代化开好局起好步。

  前三季度,“三农”工作呈现“两稳”“两进”的势头:

  “两稳”方面,克服新冠肺炎疫情、洪涝自然灾害等困难,夏粮、早稻、秋粮全面增产,“菜篮子”产品供应充足;脱贫攻坚成果不断巩固、全面推进乡村振兴顶层设计不断完善,为明年更好全面推进提供保障。

9月19日,高铁列车从吉林省公主岭市沃野间驶过(无人机照片)。新华社记者 张楠 摄

  “两进”方面,农业现代化抓住种子和耕地“两个要害”,《种业振兴行动方案》通过、启动种质资源普查,加快高标准农田建设;农村现代化围绕农村人居环境整治提升五年行动、乡村建设行动等积极部署,取得一系列进展。

10月7日,游客在河北唐山遵化市团瓢庄乡山里各庄村乘坐观光小火车欣赏稻田秋景。新华社发(刘满仓 摄)

  开局的成绩单显出沉甸甸分量:

  ——全年粮食产量将再创历史新高,连续7年保持在1.3万亿斤以上。生猪生产全面恢复。

  ——乡村富民产业发展,乡村休闲旅游业基本恢复到2019年同期水平,农产品网络零售额保持两位数增长。前三季度农村居民人均可支配收入达到13726元,扣除价格因素实际增长11.2%。

  ——农村卫生厕所普及率超过68%,医疗养老教育等保障制度加快完善,乡村治理效能不断提升。

  ……

  踏上新征程,解决好发展不平衡不充分问题,重点难点仍在“三农”,要把全面推进乡村振兴作为全面建设社会主义现代化国家、促进全体人民共同富裕的一项重大历史任务。

如何守牢金融防风险底线,怎样处理稳增长和防风险关系?

  下半年以来,经济下行压力加大,国内外风险挑战增多,个别企业出现债务风险,准确判断当前金融风险形势十分重要。

  在党中央坚强领导下,经过持续几年努力,防范化解重大金融风险攻坚战目前取得重要阶段性成果,守住了不发生系统性金融风险的底线,但金融风险仍然存在,并呈现出新情况新特点。

  一方面,银行业不良资产处置大步推进,包商银行等风险机构依法稳妥处置,在营P2P网贷机构全部停业……我国系统性金融风险上升势头得到有效遏制,高风险银行的总资产目前仅占银行业总资产1.4%,金融脱实向虚、盲目扩张得到根本扭转。

  另一方面,当前地方政府债务风险隐患仍未消除,部分行业处于周期底部,个别企业债务违约风险加大,中小金融机构风险主要集中在几个省份,国际金融市场不确定性增加。

  面对老问题新情况交织,如何牢牢守住不发生系统性金融风险的底线?

  首先要稳妥处理好个别企业的风险问题。当前个别房地产企业出现的债务违约问题,原因在于企业经营管理不善,未能根据市场形势变化审慎经营,反而盲目多元化扩张,造成经营和财务指标严重恶化。

  应看到,个别房地产企业债务违约是个案风险,对金融行业的外溢性总体可控。目前,相关部门和地方政府正依法依规开展风险处置化解工作。

  与此同时,积极稳妥推进房地产税立法和改革,做好试点工作。就当前整个房地产市场而言,合理的资金需求正在得到满足,风险总体可控,房地产市场健康发展的整体态势不会改变。

  守牢安全底线,要处理好稳增长和防风险的关系。

  进入下半年,国内有效需求不足的迹象逐步显现,国际上则面临美联储等发达经济体央行货币政策可能转向的冲击。在此情况下,把握好稳增长与防风险的平衡对金融部门是一个考验。

  从数据来看,9月末,广义货币(M2)8.3%的同比增速和社会融资规模10%的同比增速与名义经济增速基本匹配;前三季度信贷总量稳定增长,人民币贷款增加16.72万亿元;上半年我国宏观杠杆率为274.9%,保持基本稳定,为巩固经济恢复向好势头提供了金融助力。

  这得益于我国坚持实施稳健的货币政策,注意灵活精准、合理适度,既有力支持实体经济,又不搞“大水漫灌”。

  At present, financial management departments are strengthening international macroeconomic policy coordination to prevent external shocks, and at the same time do a good job in cross-cyclical policy design, coordinate financial support for the real economy and prevent risks, enhance the stability of total credit growth, and ensure that the economy operates within a reasonable range.

  Keeping the bottom line of security firmly, it is necessary to consolidate the responsibilities of all parties and form a joint force.

  Preventing financial risks requires not only the institutional cage of financial management departments, but also local governments to shoulder corresponding responsibilities.

The tenth meeting of the Central Finance and Economics Committee emphasized: We must implement the same responsibilities of local party and government and consolidate the responsibilities of all parties.

  At present, some hidden dangers of regional financial risks still exist.

The handling and resolution of these risks requires local governments to consolidate their responsibilities, prevent local fiscal risks, industry risks, and regional economic risks from transferring to financial risks, focus on improving the local credit environment and financial ecology, and help small and medium financial institutions to deepen reforms and strengthen endogenous motivation. .

  Economic prosperity, financial prosperity; financial activity, economic activity.

At present, China's economy continues to recover steadily, and the financial industry is developing steadily and healthily.

China has the ability to hold the bottom line of preventing systemic financial risks, resolve financial risks with high-quality economic development, and help China's economy move forward steadily with financial running water.

  Ride the wind and waves, travel thousands of miles.

  2021 is a year of special importance in the process of China's modernization drive.

In the overall situation of the great rejuvenation strategy of the Chinese nation and the major changes in the world unseen in a century, we have taken firm steps to build a new development pattern. Although the Chinese economy faces many challenges, the opportunities are even greater.

  Under the leadership of the Party Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping as the core, based on the new development stage, we will completely, accurately and comprehensively implement the new development concept, build a new development pattern, promote high-quality development, do our best, and persevere in achieving our set goals , China’s economic ship will surely be able to travel steadily and achieve a brighter future.

  Text reporter: Zhao Cheng, Zhang Xudong, An Bei, Han Jie, Yu Jiaxin, Zhao Xiaohui, Yu Wenjing, Gao Jing

  Video reporter: Zhou Mengdie

  Poster design: Zhao Danyang

  New media editor: Wang Dan

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