A new framework of Japan, the United States, Australia, and India called "quad".

The first face-to-face summit will be held in Washington on the 24th.

How do you deal with China, which is becoming more economically and militarily influential?

I have summarized the aims of each.

Q1. What is "quad" in the first place? Why do you work together?

"QUAD" is a word that means "4" in English, and is a framework for cooperation and cooperation created by the four countries of Japan, the United States, Australia, and India.

The four countries participating in the "Quad" share values ​​such as democracy, and it seems that they want to suppress China's actions to increase its presence in the Indo-Pacific region by strengthening cooperation with each other. ..

In particular, the United States, which hosts this summit, led the first foreign ministers' meeting within the framework of the four countries, with the former Trump administration trying to counter China.

In addition, the Biden administration has upgraded to the summit level and held an online "quad" summit in March this year.

Q2. What are the points of this meeting?

Cooperation in areas such as climate change, countermeasures against the new coronavirus, construction of supply chains such as semiconductors, and research and development of cutting-edge technologies such as AI is expected to be on the agenda.

The focus is on how far we can deepen cooperation in these fields and how far the four countries can align with their attitude toward China.

Q3. What is the aim of Japan?

Prior to his departure to Washington on the 23rd, Prime Minister Suga held a meeting on important issues such as the new coronavirus vaccine, new technology, and climate change among the four countries, and held a free and open Indo-Pacific concrete. The purpose of this visit is to find the way to change, "he told reporters.

With China intensifying its supremacy, the importance of cooperation among four countries that share basic values ​​such as freedom, democracy, and the rule of law toward the realization of a "free and open Indo-Pacific" I want to confirm.

On top of that, we will further cooperate on measures against new coronaviruses, including fair distribution of vaccines to developing countries, important technologies such as high-speed, large-capacity 5G and advanced biotechnology, and measures against climate change. I want to agree by going.

Q4. What is the aim of America?

The Biden administration emphasizes cooperation with allies and friends in order to counter China, which it considers to be its "biggest competitor," with particular emphasis on the "quad" framework.

One of the characteristics of "Quad" is the participation of India, which is not in an alliance with the United States.

The Byden administration will deal with China, which is becoming more economically and militarily influential, by attracting not only Japan and Australia, which are allies, but also India, a major power in the Indo-Pacific region, to strengthen cooperation in a wide range of fields. With this in mind, I would like to impress a strong relationship through the first face-to-face summit.

The Biden administration believes that taking the initiative in fields such as semiconductors, 5G, AI and artificial intelligence can pose an economic security risk, and attaches great importance to cooperation on these cutting-edge technologies. ..

Q5. Why do you hold a summit meeting at this timing?

From the beginning, the United States had indicated that it would like to hold a face-to-face summit meeting in the fall, but even though Prime Minister Suga was resigned, he was particular about holding it at this time.

The background to this seems to be the aim of showing that the administration is proceeding with concrete efforts in its policy toward China, which is a top priority.

President Biden has been criticized for the turmoil caused by the withdrawal of troops from Afghanistan, and his approval rating is declining, and there seems to be a desire to appeal his leadership here.

Q6. What is Australia's aim?

Australia also seems to want to strengthen cooperation in the "quad" framework and curb China's actions.

In the background, China strongly opposed the Australian government's insistence that "an independent investigation is necessary to clarify the source of the new corona", and added tariffs on Australian wine and barley. I have taken measures one after another.

This month, Australia established a new security framework "AUKUS" with the United States and the United Kingdom with China in mind.

Regarding "Quad," we look forward to collaboration in a wide range of fields, including the economy, such as building a supply chain that is not overly dependent on China.

Q7. What is your line of sight after reviewing your dependence on the Chinese market?

China is Australia's largest trading partner.

There is growing recognition in the business community that it is necessary to reassess dependence on the Chinese market and diversify trade.

Among them, India is the destination that has a hot look.

Expert John Lee, senior researcher at the University of Sydney's American Center of Research, points out that involvement in the "quad" has great economic benefits for Australia.

"Australia places particular emphasis on the presence of India in the quad. Australia has the second largest population in the world and the strategic presence of India, a huge market, in the region. It's a speculation in India. "

Q8. What is the aim of India?

India bordered China, and in June of last year, both sides clashed and suffered casualties.

Even now, tensions continue with China over territorial disputes, such as the two troops glaring at each other in part of the border area.

He was also nervous about China's efforts to strengthen its marine expansion under the "One Belt, One Road" giant economic zone initiative and increase its influence on Sri Lanka in the Indian Ocean and Bangladesh, India's neighboring country. We would like to strengthen the partnership between the four countries with common interests toward the realization of the "Open Indo-Pacific".

India is the only country among the four countries that is connected to Afghanistan, and is wary of Pakistan's approach to the Islamist Taliban due to instability of the situation and territorial disputes, and will consult with the United States and others. Can be done.

Q9. What is the difference between India and other countries?

For India, China is also the largest trading partner in terms of economy, and there is a speculation that it does not want to overstimulate.

For this reason, the Indian government wants to avoid being seen as a "China siege network", saying that the quad is "not against a specific country."

With this in mind, it will be interesting to see what kind of attitude Prime Minister Modi will take at this first meeting where the leaders will meet face to face.

Q10. What is the difference between "Quad" and "AUKUS"?

Professor Tetsuo Kotani of Meikai University, who is familiar with security issues in the Indo-Pacific region, points out that the functions of "AUKUS" and "Quad", which emphasize the military aspect, are different.

"Quad was originally a framework that focused on security, but recently it has become more important to economic security because of China's vigilance and Southeast Asia's growing distrust. The reality is that we are moving towards a framework that provides public goods to the region rather than military security. Also, the Byden administration cannot address all issues in the Indo-Pacific region with a specific framework. Instead, he says that various frameworks should be combined, and I think that Quad and Orcas are complementary to each other. "