Four ministries and commissions clarify that by 2025, large, medium and small cities across the country will basically complete urban parking systems

  Compensate for the shortcomings of urban parking facilities in accordance with the law

  ● With the rapid development of my country’s economy and the continuous improvement of residents’ living standards, the number of urban motor vehicles has increased significantly, and the problem of insufficient supply of urban parking facilities has become increasingly prominent

  ● Adhere to the supply-side structural reform as the main line, focus on strengthening planning and guidance, promote the development of urban parking facilities in a market-oriented and legal manner, improve comprehensive management capabilities, and effectively meet the reasonable parking needs of market players and the people

  ● Make more efforts to increase and utilize parking spaces, revitalize existing resources, focus on new construction and expansion, adhere to government leadership, overall planning, paid use, industrial development, market operation, information support, diversified co-governance, and practical solutions." "Difficult parking" problem

  □ Our reporter Chen Lei

  □ Our newspaper trainee reporter Sun Tianjiao

  For Li Ming, a Beijing citizen, the most worrying thing about driving in Beijing is "difficult parking."

  Li Ming studied at a university in Beijing in his early years and entered the automotive industry after graduation.

In 2008, considering the loan pressure, he bought a house in an old community in Chaoyang District, Beijing.

Soon, he bought another car.

  At that time, Li Ming's community had no planned parking spaces, and there were not many people buying cars. You could park anywhere in the community.

Since 2011, the number of vehicles in the community has soared. If he comes home late from get off work, he may not find a place to park after making two rounds in the community. He can only park the car on the side of the road around the community.

  The reporter of "Rules of Law Daily" learned in the interview that it is not only Beijing, but similar situations are beginning to appear in more and more cities across the country. Many car owners have to face the same problems as Li Ming every day. With the rapid economic development of our country, residents The standard of living continues to improve, the number of urban motor vehicles has increased significantly, and the problem of insufficient supply of urban parking facilities has become increasingly prominent.

  To this end, the General Office of the State Council recently forwarded the "Opinions on Promoting the Development of Urban Parking Facilities" (hereinafter referred to as the "Opinions") of the National Development and Reform Commission, the Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development, the Ministry of Public Security, and the Ministry of Natural Resources, proposing that Reform is the main line, focus on strengthening planning and guidance, promote the development of urban parking facilities in a market-oriented and legalized manner, improve comprehensive management capabilities, and effectively meet the reasonable parking needs of market players and the people, in order to improve the urban living environment and improve the efficiency of urban operation. Enhance the comprehensive competitiveness of the city and provide strong support.

  Experts interviewed by a reporter from the Rule of Law Daily believe that parking management involves a wide range of subjects, especially the contradiction between the supply and demand of parking spaces, which ultimately must be resolved by renewing residents’ concepts and actively participating in joint construction, co-governance and sharing. At present, the parking regulation system should be established and improved in accordance with the law, and parking governance issues should be resolved on the track of the rule of law and within the public governance system.

  The number of cars is increasing rapidly

  The parking facilities are seriously inadequate

  In 2016, when Li Ming's son was 5 years old, the couple decided to sell the house in Chaoyang District and buy a house in Haidian District, Beijing, so that their son could go to elementary school.

  When looking at the house, one of Li Ming's requirements was that there must be matching parking spaces.

After repeated selections, he got his wish and bought a house with parking space, and moved to Haidian District to live smoothly.

  The parking space in the community was finally solved, but the "difficult parking" when going out was still unsolved.

"Last weekend, I went to the flyover area for work in the morning. I circled the flyover mall two times and couldn't find a parking space. Later, under the guidance of the security guard of a unit, I found a parking lot nearby." Li Ming said.

  At noon that day, Li Ming had to rush to work near Andingmen on the North Second Ring Road.

The map showed that there was a parking lot near the destination, but when he drove there, he discovered that the so-called parking lot was actually converted from an open space in front of a medical company, and it was already full of cars.

  In desperation, Li Ming then drove north to find a parking place.

"Fortunately, I didn't drive long before I saw a miniature parking lot on the side of the road with an empty parking space inside, so I drove in quickly." After parking the car, Li Ming walked for 20 minutes before rushing. At the destination, the time he had agreed with others had already passed.

  During the interview, Mr. Sun from Beijing believed that one of the most difficult places to park in Beijing is around the school.

  His daughter is in the 4th grade at a primary school in Chaoyang District, Beijing. School ends at 4:30 pm every day.

Starting at about 3:30 in the afternoon, the roads around the school were full of cars picking up children.

If he is late, he can only park his car 1 kilometer away.

Even if he went earlier and finally found a place to park, he would be blocked after he picked up his daughter, and he couldn't drive out of the surrounding area of ​​the school in less than 10 minutes.

  According to data from the Traffic Management Bureau of the Ministry of Public Security, as of the end of 2020, the number of motor vehicles in Beijing was 6.57 million.

However, the parking resources survey report released by Beijing in 2017 showed that as of the end of 2016, the total number of approved parking spaces in urban areas of the city was 3.82 million.

  The rapid increase in the number of motor vehicles is not unique to Beijing.

According to data from the Traffic Management Bureau of the Ministry of Public Security, as of March 2021, there were 72 cities nationwide with more than 1 million vehicles, an increase of 5 compared with the same period last year.

Among them, 16 cities have more than 3 million cars.

  Compared with the rapid increase in the number of motor vehicles, there is a huge gap in motor vehicle parking spaces.

In July 2020, the "People's Daily" quoted Cheng Shidong, director of the Urban Transportation Research Center of the National Development and Reform Commission's Comprehensive Transportation Research Center, as a forecast that the parking space gap has risen to about 80 million.

  Recently, Cheng Shidong wrote an article saying that my country is in the rapid development stage of urbanization. Due to historical debts, new demand continues to grow rapidly, and the problem of "difficult parking and random parking" has become increasingly prominent.

  Yang Jianshun, a professor at the School of Law of Renmin University of China and director of the Institute of Comparative Administrative Law, told a reporter from the Rule of Law Daily that the increase in the number of cars means an improvement in the living standards of residents.

The shortage of parking spaces means that a large number of motor vehicles are parked illegally.

"As the number of cars increases, the supply of parking spaces should be increased."

  Chen Youhong, director of the Community Governance and Policy Research Center of the Public Policy Research Institute of Renmin University of China, believes that the increase in the number of motor vehicles does not necessarily cause "difficult parking." The key to the problem lies in parking management problems, which leads to disorderly parking of these vehicles. Compliant parking.

  Rational construction of parking facilities

  Effectively meet reasonable needs

  It is understood that the main goal established in the "Opinions" is: by 2025, large, medium and small cities across the country will basically build an urban parking system with parking facilities as the mainstay, off-street public parking facilities as a supplement, and on-street parking as a supplement; by 2035 , The urban parking system with reasonable layout, sufficient supply, intelligent, efficient, convenient and accessible has been fully completed.

  Chen Youhong believes that the "Opinions" establish "adhere to the supply-side structural reform as the main line" as the guiding ideology for promoting the development of urban parking facilities, which is of great significance.

Only by carrying out supply-side structural reforms can the parking facility supply system better adapt to changes in the demand structure and better meet the needs of the masses.

  According to the "Opinions", specific measures for the supply-side structural reform include the construction of parking spaces in new residential communities in strict accordance with the urban parking plan and residential community construction standards; encouraging cities with conditions to accelerate the implementation of urban renewal actions, combining old communities and old factory areas , Old neighborhoods, old buildings, etc., and actively expand new parking facilities. Local governments at all levels can reasonably arrange funds to provide overall support; support cities through internal potential and efficiency enhancement, comprehensive management of areas, and parking resources sharing, etc., to propose residential parking Comprehensive solutions, etc.

  In this regard, Cheng Shidong wrote that the supply-side structural reform does not mean an overall increase in the supply of parking spaces, but the overall planning of urban and economic development, parking and livable environment, and dynamic traffic and static traffic, especially in urban areas. Under the background of traffic congestion management, rationally promote the construction of parking facilities.

  In Cheng Shidong's view, the "Opinions" clearly "differentiate basic parking and travel parking needs based on urban development needs", and propose "effectively address basic parking needs" and "reasonably meet travel parking needs" in the main tasks and measures.

Dividing parking into two types, basic parking and travel parking, determines that the construction and supply of basic parking facilities in residential areas is the focus of the future.

  Cheng Shidong said that it is necessary to fully consider the constraints of urban traffic congestion and pollutants, study and analyze the rationality and necessity of parking supply, guide the public to use cars rationally through parking methods, and use more green travel methods such as public transportation to optimize the formation of Urban travel structure based on public transportation.

  The "Opinions" proposed that the development of urban parking facilities should be promoted in a market-oriented manner. Specific measures include deepening the reform of decentralization, regulation and service, fostering a fair and open parking market environment, removing market barriers and obstacles, and encouraging various market entities to fully participate in facility construction, Equipment research and development, product supply, facility maintenance, operation management, and information system construction; lower access standards for parking facilities construction and operation entities, investment scale, etc., and allow small, medium and micro enterprises and individuals to apply for investment and operation of public parking facilities. In principle, the number of parking spaces is not regulated. Lower limit requirements; improve the parking fee mechanism that mainly depends on the market to determine prices, and gradually reduce the scope of government pricing.

  Chen Youhong’s view is that, according to the "Opinions", in the future, large, medium and small cities across the country will basically build an urban parking system with mainly parking facilities, supplemented by off-street public parking facilities, and supplemented by on-street parking. Residential communities, hospitals, schools, The parking demand in key areas such as transportation hubs will be basically met.

In this kind of parking pattern, the land, roads, and facilities on which the three types of parking systems depend, and the attributes of rights, present diversified characteristics, and parking services and governance methods are also diversified, which cannot be completely resolved in a market-oriented way.

  Chen Youhong believes that according to the three types of urban parking systems, parking supply includes government public goods, community public goods, commercial goods, etc., because the city’s land is owned by the state, parking spaces should be positioned as public goods, except for some in the center of the city. Outside of key areas, other parking spaces are open to everyone free of charge by the government, and "the government is responsible for the supply of parking spaces."

  In Chen Youhong's view, from the perspective of parking space supply, my country currently needs to develop on-street parking, which is allocated to parking spaces on the road and provided to everyone free of charge.

Since the road is a public resource, car owners cannot take it for a long time when parking, and a fine is required for more than a certain period of time to improve the mobility of parking spaces.

What the government needs to do is to strengthen parking order management and prohibit illegal parking.

  Improve the management legal system

  Provide legal protection

  The "Opinions" proposes to improve the parking management legal system.

Within the scope of local legislative authority and in light of the actual conditions of urban traffic management, we should promptly clean up the rules and regulations that do not meet the requirements of parking facilities construction management, promote the compilation or revision of local parking facilities construction management regulations, and provide legal guarantees for the legal management of urban parking problems.

  A reporter from the Rule of Law Daily found that in recent years, many places have issued local regulations, local government regulations and other normative documents for parking management.

  On January 1, 2013, the "Shanghai Parking Lot (Gardage) Management Measures" was implemented to strengthen the planning, construction and management of parking lots (garages) in Shanghai, adjust the relationship between parking supply and demand, improve traffic conditions, and protect parking lots ( Library) the legal rights and interests of operators and parking operators.

  On October 1, 2013, the "Measures for the Management of Parking Lots in Hunan Province" were implemented to regulate the planning, construction and management of parking lots in Hunan Province.

  The "Beijing Motor Vehicle Parking Regulations" that came into effect on May 1, 2018 require strict control of the number of motor vehicles in the capital's functional core areas and urban sub-centers; gradually establish a residential parking area certification mechanism; and commercial parking within the central urban area Facilities should be open 24 hours.

  So, how do we need to improve the parking management legal system in the future?

Yang Jianshun believes that from the content described in the "Opinions", the so-called "improvement of the parking management regulatory system" is mainly through the preparation or revision of local parking facilities construction management regulations, providing governance means, and providing legal guarantees for the governance of urban parking problems in accordance with the law. .

"The future legal system will have clearer and more scientifically reasonable provisions on related rights, obligations and responsibilities, and therefore more operability."

  Yang Jianshun suggested that more efforts should be made to increase and utilize parking spaces, revitalize existing resources, focus on new construction and expansion, adhere to government leadership, overall planning, paid use, industrial development, market operation, informatization support, and diversified co-governance. Solve the problem of "difficult parking".

  Cartography/Gao Yue

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