In 350 BC, the Greek philosopher Aristotle provided a description of weather patterns in a text he called "meteorologica," which today is called "meteorology."

This was one of the first human attempts to monitor and record natural phenomena such as water evaporation and earthquakes, and marked the beginning of a long road to understanding and predicting weather.

In a report published by the American magazine "NewsWeek", writer Andrew Lisa says that forecasting the weather in the current era is a huge industry worth 7 billion dollars annually.

According to the author, more than 67,000 weather events in the United States in 2019 caused 570 deaths and more than 1,700 injuries due to floods, tropical storms, heat, hurricanes, ice storms and thunderstorms.

When weather experts issue 7-day forecasts, this information is 80% accurate, while 5-day forecasts are 90% accurate.

The author explains that “climate and weather” are two different terms, the latter describing the state of the atmosphere in the short term, including temperature, rain amounts, winds and accuracy of visibility, while the first means measuring the average weather patterns over several decades.

The "Staker" website relied on a variety of scientific sources to compile a list of the most important phrases and terms that we hear daily in weather news bulletins.

People sometimes use the terms "tropical storm and hurricane" to describe the same phenomenon (Getty Images)

  • Polar vortex

"Polar vortex" is a relatively new term for predicting winter weather, and it occurs when extremely cold air, usually from the northern hemisphere, rushes down the North American continent from then as far south as the Midwest and northeastern United States.

  • Barometer

High pressure forms when descending pressure causes air to rotate clockwise, as opposed to low pressure which creates a counterclockwise rotation.

Both phenomena, which are measured with electronic sensors called barometers, are essential for predicting weather conditions such as precipitation.

  • Inch mercury

An inch of mercury is a unit used to measure air pressure, and it represents the amount of pressure the atmosphere exerts on a column of mercury about one inch (2.54 cm) long under standard gravity at 0 ° C.

  • Lightning ball

Lightning in its traditional form is frightening and potentially fatal, and the lightning ball can cause electric shocks.

Also known as ball lightning, this phenomenon has puzzled and terrified humans for centuries.

Ball lightning is a colored ball of energy that emanates from thunderstorms, and it may sometimes collide with windows with catastrophic consequences, and it appears that it is attracted to ions that accumulate on the glass.

  • Groove and crest

Within the weather forecast, canyons and peaks are depicted with U-shaped patterns, often including arrows denoting directions.

Pressure indicators are important clues in the weather forecasting process, as rain forms around canyons while peaks indicate dry weather conditions.

  • Tropical storm

People sometimes use the terms “tropical storm and hurricane” to describe the same phenomenon, but they are actually different.

The former form in the same places and under the same conditions as hurricanes, but they leave sustained winds of 39-73 miles (62.8 to 117.5 kilometers) per hour.

When sustained wind speeds exceed 74 miles (119.1 kilometers) per hour, it turns into a hurricane.

Dew point (dew point) represents the temperature that air must reach to form moisture (Getty Images)

  • Tropical depression

The tropical depression occurs before a tropical storm forms, and it is a tropical cyclone with sustained winds of only 38 miles (61.2 kilometers) per hour.

  • Dew point - dew point

The dew point, or dew point, is the temperature that the air must reach to form moisture.

When the temperature reaches the dew point, water or dew drops begin to form on solid objects such as grass and cars.

  • Atmospheric humidity

Closely related to the dew point, atmospheric humidity means the amount of vapor in the atmosphere compared to the amount that would be detected if the air was saturated.

  • Wind cooling

Wind chill is also known as the degree of cold that we can sense, and it represents the degree of cold that the human body senses when taking the wind into account.

  • Heat index

The heat index is similar to the wind chill factor, but in the opposite direction, it represents how high the temperature is by calculating the humidity.

The more humid the air is, the less sweat will evaporate, leaving us feeling very hot outside when it's humid.

Blizzards, short but heavy snow bursts (Getty Images)

  • snowstorm

Snowstorms are short but intense blizzards that usually occur during the day.

These storms are always accompanied by strong winds, and they are known to reduce visibility to nearly zero without warning.

  • Smog

Smog is a type of visible and toxic pollution that can result when smoke, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide accumulate in a particular area.

Smog is not a natural occurrence, but meteorologists are providing reports of smog with weather forecasts in some cities with high pollution levels such as Los Angeles.

  • Frost

It is one of the types of winter rains, and it is characterized by stinging the skin and turning roads and sidewalks into ice rinks.

Frost appears when rain or melt snow freezes and turns into ice as it descends from the sky.

  • Freezing rain

Freezing rain forms just like frost, but with a slight difference, as frost falls on the ground in the form of ice, while freezing rain remains in a liquid form until it collides with a cold object and then freezes immediately upon contact.

  • Rain and snow mixture

When rain falls through a layer of "warm" air above freezing, followed by a layer of cold below freezing, snow, sleet and freezing rain can fall simultaneously.

Smog is a type of visible and toxic pollution (Getty Images)

  • Doppler radar

This radar detects weather data by emitting a wave of signals and analyzing return data.

The Doppler effect is named after its discoverer, Austrian physicist Christian Doppler.

  • Recession

The stagnation occurs in the convergence zone, which is a series of windless waters around the equator in which ships are often stuck, so sailors refer to it as a stagnation zone.

  • Dangerous thunderstorm

When meteorologists classify storms as dangerous thunderstorms, this means that they are at least 58 miles (93.3 kilometers) per hour, with hail at least an inch in diameter.

  • Partly cloudy / sunny

"Cloudy and partly sunny" are two different expressions for the same phenomenon.

According to the Meteorological Center, both terms denote opaque cloud coverage between 3-5 eighths.

  • La Nina

It is part of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, and causes massive cold ocean temperatures in the Western Hemisphere.

It is well-known for its severe impact on the weather, as it causes heavy rain and increased low pressure.

  • El Niño

El Niño is the "warm" half of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, and it occurs infrequently every 2 or 7 years and is often followed by La Niña.

El Niño warms the oceans and has the opposite effect to the Niña in terms of atmospheric pressure.

Doppler radar detects weather data by emitting a wave of signals and analyzing return data (Getty Images)

  • Jet stream

Jet currents are gentle but intense winds in the highest regions of the atmosphere.

The jet currents blow from west to east, although their flow sometimes shifts to the north and south, and they affect flights in terms of fuel consumption and flight time.

  • Ice fog

The ice fog is so cold that water droplets freeze on contact, and electric poles, tree branches and traffic lights are covered with thick layers of ice.

  • hot wave

Heat waves are long periods of unusually hot weather.

And it lasts for at least two days, and the temperatures are higher than the normal rates recorded in a region.

  • Storms

This phenomenon occurs when large storms cause seawater to rise abnormally above the boundaries of astronomical tides.

Heavy storms can cause rapid and deadly flooding in coastal areas.

  • the fog

Fog occurs when large amounts of dry, fine particles get trapped in the air, scattering light and giving the lower atmosphere a cloudy appearance.

When meteorologists classify storms as dangerous thunderstorms, this means that they are at least 93.3 km / hr (Getty Images)

  • The flood

Flooding occurs when large quantities of water flow from sudden heavy rain, or sometimes when a dam is damaged and water flows through a narrow area unable to absorb large quantities of water.

  • Drought

Most people know that droughts are caused by a lack of rain and abnormally high temperatures, but overpopulation and overuse of land are factors that contribute to this phenomenon.

  • Breezy and windy

The breeze means winds blow at between 12 and 22 miles (19.3 and 35.4 kilometers) per hour.

On windy days, winds flow at up to 50 miles (80.5 kilometers) per hour.

  • Black ice

It is so named because it is so thin that it is almost invisible, but the ice itself is not black in color.

This phenomenon is formed when a sudden increase in temperature causes snow to melt and fall on roads that are still cold enough to freeze liquid water upon contact.

Frost is a type of winter rain and is characterized by biting the skin and turning roads and sidewalks into skating rinks (Getty Images)

  • Microoprost

It is dense upward air currents, and it is one of the most dangerous weather phenomena.

Rising air currents suspend large amounts of rain and ice, and when the current weakens, there is nothing left to hold all this water and ice in place.

  • Water column

Although they look like water tornadoes, water columns form from cloudy winds that descend in circles over bodies of water.

These plumes descend from cumulus clouds and behave like hurricanes, but they form over lakes or oceans and are generally less dense than other tornadoes.

  • the cold

Unlike frost, which is formed by precipitation in extremely cold air, hail forms when strong winds within thunderstorms push water to a level well above freezing.

The water turns into large hail, which eventually becomes too heavy for the upstream and falls to the ground.

  • Flood Summit

It is the highest water level reaches, and the most important and dangerous time of flooding, but it is also an indication that the flood will soon subside.

Flooding occurs when large amounts of water from heavy rain suddenly flow out (Getty Images)

  • Air front

It is the boundary between two air masses of different densities, and the front is what separates the two blocks.

Cold fronts form when cold air replaces warm, and then the opposite happens: warm fronts form.

  • Westerlis - West Wind

One of the main winds, as its name implies, blows from the west.

It is fed by polar winds coming from areas of high pressure, and winter is strongest when the pole pressure is low.

  • East wind

The easterly winds blow from the east, and these prevailing cold and dry winds originate from polar heights, and flow into areas of low pressure.

  • trade winds

It got its name because it has played an integral role throughout history in travel, communication, trade, exploration, and warfare.

To this day, cargo ships rely on these strong winds.

Most people know that droughts are caused by a lack of rain and abnormally high temperatures (Getty Images)

  • Shear winds

It is a climatic phenomenon resulting from a sudden increase in wind speed or direction over a certain distance in the atmosphere.

Wind shear is measured both horizontally and vertically, and engineers need to take it into account when designing skyscrapers and other tall buildings.

  • Arid climate

Drought represents the opposite concept of humidity, a term that has more to do with climate than weather.

Every continent on Earth has arid and arid climates, often very hot or extremely cold.

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