China News Service, March 30. According to the Chinese government website, recently, the General Office of the State Council issued several opinions on strengthening grassland protection and restoration, demanding that by 2025, grassland protection and restoration system will be basically established, the contradiction between grassland and livestock will be significantly eased, and grassland degradation The trend has been fundamentally curbed, the comprehensive vegetation coverage of the grassland has stabilized at about 57%, and the ecological conditions of the grassland have continued to improve.

By 2035, the grassland protection and restoration system will be more complete, the grassland and livestock balance will be basically achieved, the degraded grassland will be effectively managed and restored, the grassland comprehensive vegetation coverage will be stabilized at about 60%, the grassland ecological function and production function will be significantly improved, and the construction of a beautiful China The role in the show.

By the middle of this century, degraded grasslands have been comprehensively managed and restored, and the grassland ecosystem has achieved a virtuous cycle, forming a new pattern of harmonious coexistence between man and nature.

Data Map: Aerial photography of the scenery of the Guyuan section of Tianlu Road in Zhangjiakou Grassland.

Photo by China News Agency reporter Zhang Fan

  The opinions put forward the following twelve work measures:

——Establish a grassland survey system.

Improve the grassland survey system, integrate and optimize the grassland survey team, and improve the grassland survey technical standard system.

On the basis of the third national land survey, a special survey of grassland resources was organized in a timely manner to comprehensively investigate the types, ownership, area, distribution, quality, and utilization of grasslands, and establish basic grassland management files.

——Improve the grassland monitoring and evaluation system.

Establish and improve the grassland monitoring and evaluation team, technology and standard system.

Strengthen the construction of grassland monitoring network, make full use of data resources such as remote sensing satellites, build an air-space-ground integrated grassland monitoring network, and strengthen grassland dynamic monitoring.

Improve grassland monitoring and evaluation data collection, regular release and information sharing mechanisms.

Strengthen grassland statistics and improve grassland statistical indicators and methods.

——Prepare grassland protection, restoration and utilization plans.

In accordance with the principle of adapting measures to local conditions and implementing policies by divisions, and in accordance with national land and space planning, a national grassland protection, restoration and utilization plan shall be formulated to clarify grassland functional divisions, protection objectives and management measures.

Reasonably plan herdsmen’s settlements to prevent the degradation of the grasslands surrounding the settlements.

Local people's governments at all levels shall, in accordance with the higher-level planning, formulate plans for the protection, restoration and utilization of grasslands in their administrative regions and organize their implementation.

——Increase the protection of grassland.

Implement the basic grassland protection system, designate the most basic and important grasslands required to maintain national ecological security and ensure the healthy development of grassland animal husbandry as basic grasslands, implement more stringent protection and management, and ensure that the basic grasslands are not reduced in area and quality. Decline, use remains unchanged.

Strictly implement the ecological protection red line system and the land and space use control system.

Strengthen law enforcement supervision, establish a sound grassland joint law enforcement mechanism, severely crack down on and resolutely curb all kinds of illegal occupation of grassland ecological space, and indiscriminate reclaiming of grassland.

Establish and complete a grassland law enforcement accountability system, and strictly implement a grassland ecological environment damage compensation system.

Strengthen the review and approval management of land acquisition and occupation of grassland for mining, engineering construction, etc., and strengthen source control and supervision during and after the event.

Lawfully regulate the occupation of grasslands for the construction of large-scale breeding farms and other facilities.

Improve the implementation of the prohibition of grazing and rest grazing and the balance of pasture and livestock, and investigate and deal with overgrazing and illegal grazing during the prohibition of grazing and rest.

Organize the construction of demonstration counties for grass-livestock balance, and summarize and promote the experience and model of achieving grass-livestock balance.

——Improve the grassland nature reserve system.

Integrate and optimize the establishment of grassland-type nature reserves, and implement overall protection and differentiated management.

Carry out the confirmation and registration of the natural resources of nature reserves. In the core protection areas of nature reserves, human activities are prohibited in principle; in the general control areas of nature reserves and grassland natural parks, negative list management is implemented to regulate production, life, and tourism activities, and strengthen The integrity and connectivity of the grassland ecosystem leaves room for the survival and reproduction of wild animals and plants, and effectively protects biodiversity.

-Accelerate the promotion of grassland ecological restoration.

Implement grassland ecological restoration and management, accelerate the restoration of degraded grassland vegetation and soil, and improve grassland ecological and production functions.

In severely overloaded and overgrazing areas, measures such as grazing prohibition and enclosure, no-tillage supplementary sowing, soil loosening and fertilization, and rodent and insect pest control shall be adopted to promote the restoration of grassland vegetation.

For the cultivated grasslands, return farmland to grassland in a planned way in accordance with the scope and scale approved by the State Council.

In areas with suitable water and soil conditions, implement ecological restoration of degraded grasslands, encourage and support the construction of artificial grasslands, restore and improve grassland production capacity, support the construction of high-quality reserve forage grass bases, and promote the organic integration of grassland ecological restoration and high-quality development of grassland animal husbandry.

Strengthen the monitoring and early warning of grassland biological disasters, strengthen the prevention and control of grassland pests and invasive alien species, and continuously improve the level of green prevention and control.

Improve the emergency response plan for grassland fire emergencies, and strengthen grassland fire monitoring and early warning and fire prevention and control.

Improve the supervision system of grassland ecological protection and restoration.

-Coordinate and promote ecological management of forests and grasses.

In accordance with the requirements for the overall protection, systematic restoration, and comprehensive management of landscapes, forests, fields, lakes and grasses, and the principles of suitable forests for forests, grasslands for grasslands, and wastelands for waste, the protection and restoration of forests and grasslands and desertification control shall be promoted as a whole.

In arid and semi-arid areas, we insist on using water to determine greenery, and adopt grass and shrub as the mainstay, combined with forest and grass to restore vegetation, and enhance the stability of the ecosystem.

In the interlaced area of ​​forest and grass, plant forest and grass composite vegetation to avoid excessive emphasis on concentrated contiguous and high-density afforestation.

In the forest area, proper retention of forests and grasslands around forests will form a composite ecosystem of woodland and grassland mosaic distribution.

In grassland areas, for degraded grasslands with fragile ecosystems and important ecological locations, strengthen ecological restoration and protection management, and consolidate the results of ecological governance.

Research and set the index of forest and grass coverage rate to assess and evaluate the effectiveness of ecological construction in various regions.

-Vigorously develop grass seed industry.

Establish and improve the national grass germplasm resources protection and utilization system, encourage local governments to carry out general surveys of grass germplasm resources, establish a preservation system integrating grass germplasm resources banks, resource nurseries, and in situ protection, and improve the collection, preservation, evaluation, identification, and evaluation of grass germplasm resources. A technological system for innovative use and information sharing.

Strengthen the selection, breeding, expansion, storage and promotion of high-quality grass species, especially high-quality native grass species, and continuously increase the self-sufficiency rate of grass seeds to meet the needs of grassland ecological restoration.

Improve grass variety review system and strengthen grass seed quality supervision.

——Reasonable use of grassland resources.

Pastoral areas should aim to achieve a balance between grass and livestock, optimize the structure of the herd, control the number of grazing livestock, improve the level of scientific breeding and grazing management, and reduce the pressure on natural grassland grazing.

Semi-agricultural and semi-pastoral areas should build perennial artificial grasslands according to local conditions and develop moderate-scale operations.

Agricultural areas should combine the work of returning farmland to grassland, grassland rotation, etc., vigorously develop artificial grassland, improve the supply capacity of forage grass, and develop large-scale and standardized farming.

Accelerate the transformation of traditional grassland animal husbandry production methods, optimize the allocation of resources in pastoral, semi-agricultural, semi-pastoral and agricultural areas, and implement production models such as "pastoral area breeding and agricultural area fattening" to improve resource utilization efficiency.

Develop modern grass industry, support the development of grass product processing industry, and establish a perfect grass product quality standard system.

Strengthen the training of farmers and herdsmen, and improve the ability to scientifically protect and rationally use grasslands.

——Improve the grassland contracting management system.

Accelerate the registration and issuance of grassland rights.

Pastoral areas and semi-pastoral areas should focus on solving the problems of unclear grassland contracted plots, inconsistent land plots, and overlapping.

In areas where grassland is small and scattered, it is necessary to adopt flexible and diverse methods to implement and improve the grassland contracting management system according to local conditions, and to clarify the main body of responsibility.

Strengthen grassland contracting management, clarify ownership and use rights, stabilize contracting rights, and relax management rights.

Regulate the circulation of grassland management rights, guide and encourage the implementation of cooperative management in accordance with the grazing system unit, and improve the level of rational management and utilization of grassland.

When implementing the grassland contracting management system and regulating the transfer of management rights, the integrity of the grassland ecosystem must be fully considered to prevent grassland fragmentation.

—— Promote the reform of the paid use system of state-owned grassland resources steadily.

Reasonably determine the scope of paid use of state-owned grasslands.

State-owned grasslands that are operated by members of rural collective economic organizations by households or joint households are not included in the scope of paid use, but users’ obligations to protect grasslands need to be clarified.

An agreement should be signed to clarify the agent of state-owned grassland ownership and the owner of the right to use it, and to implement the rights and obligations of both parties.

Explore and innovate effective forms for realizing the rights and interests of state-owned grasslands. Acting entities of state-owned grassland ownership agencies collect paid user fees through rent, franchise fees, and dividends from operating income, and establish a profit distribution mechanism.

Incorporate paid use into the annual state-owned assets report.

——Promote the green development of grassland areas.

Scientifically promote the multi-functional utilization of grassland resources, accelerate the development of green and low-carbon industries, and strive to broaden the channels for farmers and herdsmen to increase their income.

Give full play to the ecological and cultural functions of the grassland, create a number of grassland tourist attractions, resorts and boutique tourist routes, and promote the development of grassland tourism and ecological health care industries.

Guide and support low-income people in grassland areas to increase their income by participating in grassland protection and restoration.

  In addition, the opinions also put forward four safeguard measures, including improving scientific and technological support capabilities, improving the legal and regulatory system, increasing policy support, and strengthening management team building.