Chinanews.com, Beijing, December 26 (Reporter Li Yanan) AIDS is an important global public health problem. Because of its irreversible and secret transmission method, it poses a huge threat to public health. The outbreak of the new crown epidemic this year is more anti-AIDS work. Bring huge challenges.
In an online interview recently, experts pointed out that in terms of international prevention and control practices, in recent years there has been increasing emphasis on pre-exposure prevention (PrEP) and post-exposure prevention (PEP).
With good compliance, the effectiveness of pre-exposure prophylaxis to prevent HIV infection can reach more than 90%.
Statistics show that as of the end of October 2020, China has reported 1.045 million cases of HIV infections, which continues to be at a low epidemic level.
With the emergence of antiretroviral therapy (ART) drugs in recent years, AIDS has changed from a fatal epidemic to a preventable and controllable chronic disease, and the mortality rate of infected people has been significantly reduced.
However, the number of new infections continues to increase.
Currently, how to prevent new HIV infections has become the key to preventing and controlling the spread of AIDS.
The United Nations AIDS Programme (UNADIS) mentioned in the 2020 World AIDS Day report that most (about 62%) of new HIV infections in the world occur in high-risk key populations and their sexual partners. Prevention of high-risk populations has become An important link that cannot be ignored.
Currently in China, the transmission of HIV through blood transfusion is basically blocked, and transmission through intravenous drug use and mother-to-child transmission are effectively controlled, and sexual transmission has become the main route of transmission.
Among the newly diagnosed HIV-infected persons in China, more than 95% were infected through sex. Among the newly reported infections from January to October 2019, male same-sex transmission accounted for 23%.
HIV prevention strategies are mainly divided into behavioral interventions and biomedical interventions. Among them, behavioral interventions include partner education, needle exchange, promotion of condom use, etc., and biomedical interventions cover STD treatment, mother-to-child blocking, and treatment That is prevention (TasP), pre-exposure prevention (PrEP) and post-exposure prevention (PEP).
Professor Wang Ning from the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention said: “In recent years, in terms of international prevention and control practices, there has been increasing emphasis on pre-exposure prevention (PrEP) and post-exposure prevention (PEP). But what needs to be emphasized is that HIV The key to prevention and control is pre-exposure prevention. Pre-exposure prevention means that people who have not yet been infected with HIV take specific antiviral drugs to prevent HIV infection before they become susceptible to HIV infection. PrEP is effective as long as it is used. , Can significantly reduce the risk of HIV infection through sexual transmission, and can provide effective prevention for people with a higher risk of HIV infection. The principle of PrEP to prevent HIV infection is to take anti-HIV infection drugs in advance to limit the entry of HIV in people Reproduction in the body to achieve the effect of preventing HIV infection. With good compliance, the effectiveness of pre-exposure prophylaxis against HIV infection can reach more than 90%."
According to reports, the update of authoritative guidelines at home and abroad further confirms the significance of PrEP as an important means of HIV prevention and control. The current WHO, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's PrEP guidelines, EACS European guidelines, and the International Society for Antiviral Society (IAS-USA) treatment The guidelines, as well as the recently released "Expert Consensus on Pre-exposure Preventive Drugs in China" all use PrEP (FTC/TDF) as an important measure and gold standard for HIV prevention among high-risk groups.
China's first pre-exposure prevention drug emtricitabine for uninfected people, tenofovir tablets, was approved in August this year. It is suitable for pre-exposure prophylaxis for people at higher risk of HIV infection to reduce HIV infection in adults and adolescents People who recommend using PrEP include men who have sex with men (MSM), heterosexual persons at high risk of HIV infection, and HIV-negative persons among HIV single-positive partners.
Pre-exposure prevention is not a vaccine, the body does not produce HIV antibodies, so it needs to be taken regularly to achieve its preventive effect.
Professor Zhang Fujie from the Infection Center of Beijing Ditan Hospital Affiliated to Capital Medical University pointed out: “The effectiveness of PrEP in preventing HIV infection is highly dependent on medication compliance. The higher the compliance with PrEP medication, the better the effect of reducing the risk of new HIV infections. Need to be reminded. Yes, as an effective HIV prevention method, PrEP cannot prevent other sexually transmitted diseases. Therefore, a comprehensive prevention strategy including treatment is prevention, pre-exposure prevention and condom use should be promoted among high-risk groups." (End)