China News Service, Beijing, September 29. Today is World Heart Day. In China, the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases continues to increase, and more and more people monitor their cardiovascular health indicators through regular physical examinations.
For example, blood lipids are a check item that many people value extremely during the physical examination. However, many people do not understand blood lipid health, and even some misunderstandings.
Yang Deyan (first from left), attending physician in the Department of Cardiology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital.
"Blood lipids", "lipoproteins", "high-density lipoproteins", "triglycerides", "total cholesterol"... a physical examination report is placed in front of you. Can you distinguish these items related to blood lipids?
First of all, we must first understand what blood lipids are.
According to Yang Deyan, an attending physician in the Department of Cardiology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, the so-called "blood lipid" is the general term for lipids in the body, including lipids such as "triglycerides", "cholesterol", and "phospholipids".
"Lipoprotein" means blood lipids plus protein. Because blood lipids are not soluble in water, they can only be transported in the blood if they are wrapped in protein.
These proteins are also called "apolipoproteins" which are proteins that carry blood lipids.
The density of lipoprotein is high or low, so there is a classification of so-called "low density lipoprotein", "high density lipoprotein" and so on.
Lipoproteins of different densities have different proportions of blood lipids. Generally, the lower the density, the more abundant triglycerides are. On the contrary, the higher the proportion of cholesterol.
Yang Deyan introduced that blood lipids themselves are actually beneficial to the human body. Triglycerides are an important source of energy reserves and provide energy for the human body. Some severely ill patients who cannot eat, sometimes have to infuse blood lipids into the body.
Cholesterol is also indispensable in forming cell membranes and forming physiological hormones.
However, if blood lipids are too much, they will be deposited in the arteries and form atherosclerotic plaques. Over time, the arteries will become narrower and narrower, and even the plaques will suddenly rupture and form thrombi, which will block the arteries at once.
If the heart and blood vessels are suffering, it will be angina pectoris, or myocardial infarction, or even life-threatening.
Therefore, the problem of blood lipids is getting more and more attention from the people.
Data map: Citizens seek medical treatment in the hospital.
Photo by Liang Jingdong
There are good and bad blood lipids in the human body.
The worst is low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, which is a pathogenic factor of atherosclerosis, which is mainly affected by heredity, age and gender. If reasonable medication is used to reduce it to a certain degree, it will be great for preventing cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. There are benefits.
High-density lipoprotein cholesterol is a "good guy". It can transport cholesterol in the blood vessel wall to the liver for elimination. If our laboratory test sheet shows high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, we should feel lucky.
Yang Deyan said that there is no drug that can prevent cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases by raising high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, because its values vary greatly and are often related to diet and exercise.
The public often feel that it is necessary to avoid excessive intake of cholesterol from food choices.
But experts say that the cholesterol consumed only accounts for one third of the cholesterol in the body, and the remaining two thirds are made by the liver itself.
Therefore, eating less will not fully lower cholesterol.
How to judge whether my blood lipids are normal?
This is not a simple matter. It cannot be seen from the physical examination sheet alone, because different people have different characteristics, and the signs of determining whether blood lipids are normal are not the same, and further evaluation by the doctor is required.
In case of abnormal blood lipids, what methods can reduce blood lipids?
Yang Deyan said that healthy eating, regular exercise, weight loss and quitting tobacco are the basis for lowering blood lipids.
If the non-pharmacological treatment of lifestyle changes still fails to achieve the desired goal of blood lipids, it is necessary to resort to drugs.
At present, the most commonly used, most specific, effective, and most specific cholesterol-lowering drug that can reduce cardiovascular and cerebrovascular risks is statins. In recent years, with the advancement of medicine, new types of lipid-lowering drugs have emerged in endlessly.