The national grassland comprehensive vegetation coverage increased from 49% to 55.7% in eight years
The pastures have become green, cattle and sheep have become fatter, and herdsmen have become rich
Overlooking the land of China, from the meadow grasslands of Inner Mongolia in the east, the Gobi of Xinjiang in the west, and the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in the south, China's natural grasslands are nearly 400 million hectares, accounting for 41.7% of the total land area.
Did you know that the grassland is the Chinese water tower, the source of the rivers, and the ecological barrier that prevents wind and sand, and conserves water and soil.
Did you know that the grassland is the main settlement area of 70% of ethnic minorities.
Did you know that grassland is the green "skin" that cares for the earth and an important barrier to maintain the country's ecological security...
In the past eight years, the comprehensive vegetation coverage of grassland nationwide has increased from 49% to 55.7%. This 6.7 percentage point is hard to come by!
"The'Salon' of Sharon Beach is gone, and the bison from Bison Township is back"
"Looking at the green grass and smelling the grass, the childhood prairie is back." Majiu, a herder, drove the herd and wandered in the "green sea". This is Sharon Beach, Yeniugou Township, Qilian County, Qinghai Province. Qilian Mountains and Heihe River nourish the fertile grassland.
Recalling the past, Ma Jiu was heartbroken: "There are more and more cattle, less and less grass, mouse holes everywhere, and the bare and cracked grass is like turtle shells." In the 1970s and 1980s, due to overgrazing, more than 110 Among the ten thousand acres of pastures, 350,000 acres of pastures have become black soil beaches. When there is often black wind and sand in spring, everyone is afraid to go out.
Treat the grassland without waiting any longer!
In the past few years, Sharon Beach has banned grazing and conservation, raised livestock, and replanted vegetation... There is more green grass, and the “Salon” is gone. The vegetation coverage of Sharon Beach has increased from 10% to more than 80%. , So beautiful!" Majiu's joy came from the bottom of her heart.
Protect the grasslands and continue to struggle. Green, extending from the foot of the Qilian Mountains-in the past 8 years, the grassland area has been continuously restored, and the total output of natural grassland in the country has increased by nearly 100 million tons, and has remained above 1 billion tons for eight consecutive years. The green "skin" of the earth has become beautiful and more beautiful. Healthy now.
The change is hard to come by.
The balance of grass and livestock, the measures of reducing livestock, rest grazing, and rotation grazing are precisely applied.
"We lost more than 400 cows at once. I love the cows and the grass even more!" Kangba Hanzigong Qiuchi from Shiqu County, Ganzi Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan said frankly, "If you want to find good grass, you can only go farther and farther. Can't eat enough!"
To let the tired grassland "take a breath", Gong Qiuchi paid out the money to sell cattle to repair the pens, "there are subsidies for building warm sheds, and standardization of breeding increases benefits." In Ganzi Prefecture, 45 million mu of grazing were banned, and grass-livestock balance was implemented in 7963. 10,000 mu, and the comprehensive vegetation coverage of grassland will reach 83.9% by the end of 2019.
Use grass to determine livestock, there is more grass, and cattle and sheep are more fat. Up to now, the national grazing prohibition and grazing ban and the balance of forage and livestock have reached 3.8 billion mu, accounting for 63% of the country’s grassland area, benefiting more than 12 million herders.
Scientific governance and ecological restoration work for a long time.
The grasslands are golden and green, the rivers and lakes are plentiful, and the birds are stumbling. Cao Lei, a herder on the Ulagai grassland in Inner Mongolia, sighed: "The saline spots have been cured, and my pasture has come back to life." With the help of scientific and technical personnel, the fence was enclosed and spread with humic acid, allowing his family's 30,000 mu of degraded grass to heal and average vegetation. Coverage reaches 40%-60%.
"Divide the sand dunes into grids, sow shrubs on demand, and sow grass seeds. Year after year, the grassland will be revived." Walking on the hillside of Maotouliang Village, Yanchi County, Ningxia, there are wheatgrass squares underfoot. The relevant person in charge of the grassland department said that in the past 10 years, more than 1.2 million mu of degraded grassland in the county has been restored, and the sand dunes of more than 100 mu have been basically eliminated.
"You can't stay hungry to protect the ecology, cattle and sheep settle down, and herders become rich"
"Only raising grass and not raising cows, what to eat and drink?" When the shepherd whip was handed over to the cooperative, Sairi Gabu, a herder in Lageri Village, Zeku County, Qinghai Province, couldn't figure it out at first.
"There are dozens of cows squeezed on a pasture of more than 100 acres, and the grass is about to be eaten up. The yak is not as big as a sheep." The chairman of the cooperative Odo persuaded, "Join the cooperative, the grass is divided into areas and the livestock is raised in groups. If we engage in ecological breeding, we will surely be able to flourish grass and make cattle fat."
After a few years, Sairi Gabu was convinced, "This step is right!" Last year, he paid dividends and worked, earning more than 100,000 yuan. What made him even more happy was that the black soil beach was nowhere to be seen, and the grassland became bigger.
"You can't keep your ecology hungry." Among the 268 animal husbandry and semi-animal husbandry counties in the country, 57% are key counties for poverty alleviation and development, and 90% of herders' income comes from the grasslands. The grassland is a "granary" for livestock, a "rice bowl" for herders, and a "vegetable basket" for residents.
To protect the ecological rich pockets, the animal husbandry industry will accelerate the transformation and upgrading of the green ecology, leveraging the changes in production, organization, and operation methods, so as to realize the good grass and the rich people.
From disorderly nomadism to scientific breeding, the prohibition of herding cannot help raising.
In Horqin Grassland, cattle and sheep live a "settled" life. "I live in a shed, shelter from wind and rain, eat alfalfa with silage, and have comprehensive nutrition. Compared with nomads, a cow is 300 kilograms longer, which is a few thousand yuan." Cui Jianguo, a herder from Angtaitun, Keyouzhong Banner, Inner Mongolia With emotion.
In the Hulunbuir grassland, cattle and sheep can "stop in." "Demolition of the fence, I raise my hands in favor!" said Mijigedorji, director of the Manglai Animal Husbandry Cooperative in New Barhu Right Banner, Inner Mongolia. "Every family has a fence, cows and sheep stare at a piece of gnawing, how can they stand it, the pasture is like a'pi Lao'". Integrate pastures, rotate grazing in four seasons, complete 150,000 mu of seasonal rest grazing, 240,000 mu of rotation grazing in areas, and 150,000 mu of pasture improvement.
It is still breeding, but the method has changed. House-feeding, semi-house-feeding breeding, grassland circulation, and borrowing grazing in other places...a series of measures not only let the grassland "rest a rest", but also let the livestock eat well.
From a family to a group to become rich, reduce livestock without reducing income.
30 catties in two months! The sheep-raising technology of the cooperative convinced Puqiong from Qudui Village, Xiongmai Township, Sakya County, Tibet. "It seems we need to'change our brains.' The cooperative knows technology and knows how to operate. We raise fewer sheep, but we make a lot of money." 142 villagers applied to join the cooperative and bid farewell to the nomadic life.
Opening the red envelopes, the villagers of Magle Village, Banma County, Qinghai Province, have blossomed. "My ranch and yak have become shares in the cooperative, and the annual share and salary can earn tens of thousands of yuan." The cooperative is connected to the market and the herdsmen. Focusing on the development of yak-bred bulls, one can sell for more than 50,000 yuan, and this year it will distribute more than 290,000 yuan to 96 members.
Professional cooperatives, family farms, leading enterprises...a group of new business entities thrive in the grasslands. From raising one by one to organizing cooperation, grassland animal husbandry has been moving towards intensification.
From the scale to the quality, high quality and good price.
Wearing "earrings" with "identity card" and living in a "single room", the cattle are grazing at the cattle-raising cooperative in Topayike Village, Kuqa City, Xinjiang. The villager Abuliz Maimat said, "The cooperative is unified. The quality of breeding, feeding, and epidemic prevention is guaranteed, and one end can be sold for thousands of yuan."
Drinking spring water, eating Chinese medicinal materials, and inhaling negative oxygen ions, Fan Deqin has a knack for raising sheep in Huangcaogou Village, Mati Tibetan Township, Sunan Yugu Autonomous County, Zhangye, Gansu. A good environment produces ecological sheep. The mutton is green-labeled and can be traced back. When good products are sold at a good price, the annual net profit is more than 300,000 yuan.
Ecological awards make up real money and count ecological accounts as well as people’s livelihood accounts
The grassland is the hometown of herdsmen. This is not only an ecological barrier area, but also a concentrated distribution area of poor people. Among the 110 million ethnic minority population, more than 70% live in grassland areas. Grassland ecological protection is inseparable from policy support. It is necessary to calculate the "economic account" and "ecological account" as well as the "people's livelihood account".
——The policy is real money, allowing herders to enjoy the ecological dividend.
"Grassland'paid vacation' changes from green to yellow, and from yellow to green. The policy is like rain in time!" Temu Hote of Alatan Heli Sumu, East Uzhumuqin Banner, Inner Mongolia, has benefited. In order to protect the grassland, Qili has issued a policy that only one sheep can be raised for every 26 acres of grassland, and there is a 3 yuan reward for each acre of grassland. "The grass is getting denser, the varieties are increasing, and the sandstorms are less."
Since 2011, 13 provinces in my country's main pastoral areas have implemented grassland ecological protection subsidies and incentives, and given certain incentives and subsidies to herders for carrying out grassland prohibition and implementing grass-livestock balance measures. Over the past eight years, the state has invested more than 130 billion yuan in grassland ecological compensation funds.
Ecological "red envelopes" are heavy: nearly 6 million farmers and herdsmen in Inner Mongolia have benefited from it; 760,000 herders in Qinghai Province enjoy subsidies; 10% of the annual per capita disposable income of Tibetan farmers and herdsmen comes from grassland ecological subsidies...
——Strengthen the foundation, make up for shortcomings, and add stamina to the development of the grassland.
In the Xilin Gol Grassland of Inner Mongolia, the pasture is full of technology: automatic drinking fountains rely on solar power, video surveillance to observe the cattle in real time, and modern sheds are spacious and bright. Erdentegus, a herder in Abagaqi Alatang Tugerigacha, said with emotion, “I used to go on horseback for inspections, and now I sit at home and click the mouse. More than 80 cows can be managed by one person.”
The water circuit network facilities are constantly improving. Erdentegus stripped out the adobe houses and built small buildings. "LCD TVs, laptops, water heaters, and household appliances have everything, just like the lives of people in the city." Quite proud.
Behind the change is the continuous increase in investment. In the early stage of reform and opening up, my country’s investment in grassland construction was only about 100 million yuan per year. In recent years, the total investment in various constructions has approached 30 billion yuan per year.
——Ecological migration allows herders to lay down their grazing whip and enjoy a happy life.
"The children go to work to earn wages, and the government also gives us more than 20,000 yuan in subsidies every year. You don't have to worry about life." She moved from Sanjiangyuan Core Reserve to Golmud City, Qinghai Province, and Bujiu, a herder in Qumalai County Can't help but admire: Such a good day, I dare not even think about it in the past!
To protect the "China Water Tower", Qumarlai implemented the ecological resettlement project of returning grazing to grassland. More than 1,500 herders moved away from their homeland. The county implemented 23.47 million mu of grazing ban and achieved a balance of grass and livestock area of 9.61 million mu.
"Silicon Valley grows in the grassland, and the scenery can also be changed into a "money scene""
Good ecology becomes a "golden rice bowl". Reasonable development of grass industry resources, relying on grassland scenery, grassland agriculture, grass product processing, clean energy, sightseeing and tourism... a number of emerging industries have emerged in the vast grasslands, making this "emerald" more shining.
"Gold" grows in the grass, and a grass brings new wealth.
"Can grass grow for money?" Just when he heard that "grain was changed to feed", Zhang Guangcheng, a villager in the third group of Shuangquan Village, Hedong Town, Guazhou County, Jiuquan City, Gansu Province was shocked. But now I am convinced.
In the past, I planted maize and couldn't make money for a hard year; now I plant alfalfa, harvest three crops a year, and earn 1,000 yuan per mu. An interest chain of "breeding enterprises + cooperatives + farmers" is formed. The planting area of forage grass exceeds 10,000 mu, and the average income of grass farmers increases by more than 1,000 yuan. "I didn't expect'small grass' to really become a big industry." Zhang Guangcheng sighed.
Can Horqin Grassland become "Silicon Valley"? Liu Gongshe, a researcher at the Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, is full of confidence. “The Leymus chinensis hay market is more than 10 million tons, and Horqin is a natural breeding'Silicon Valley'.” His team cultivated the characteristic native grass species “Lymus chinensis”. It has been promoted and applied in many places.
Extending the chain, the processing of grassland products enriches the residents' dining table.
Entering the home of Narentuya, the right-wing rear banner of Chahar, Inner Mongolia, the fragrance of milk is overflowing. “The milk tofu and milk skin made from fresh milk can be sold at all.” Since the processing plant was put into production last year, Narentuya has earned money. More than 1 million yuan. As of the end of last year, there were 1,546 ethnic dairy food production and processing workshops in Inner Mongolia, with an annual processing output value of over 1 billion yuan.
my country's grass seed industry, grassland agriculture, grass product production and processing industry, etc. continue to grow and develop. There are thousands of related enterprises with an annual output value of more than 700 billion yuan. The grassland industry has become a basic industry for economic and social development.
Eco-tourism, good scenery in exchange for good "money scenery".
The vegetation coverage rate has returned to 95%. In mid-July, Sujiwan Village, Menyuan County, Qinghai Province, welcomed a group of tourists, riding horses, bullock carts, staying in tents, and staring at the stars.
"Grass is the rarest thing everyone!" Deng Xiangxiang reduced livestock and stopped herding. Like the people in the village, he started a "grass" family home, and his business was booming. With this alone, the county has solved the employment of nearly 300 people, increasing per capita income by more than 20,000 yuan, and has also led to more than 200 professional cooperatives in the surrounding area.
Grassland is productivity! In recent years, the number of people visiting the grassland areas for tourism and recreation, experiencing the beautiful scenery and folk culture of the grasslands has continued to increase. This has injected strong impetus to further increase grassland protection and restoration, enhance grassland ecological service functions, and provide more high-quality grassland ecological products.
Wang Hao Changqin