The "employment season" of 3.85 million vocational students
Looking at the weekly employment statistics of college graduates, the mood of Wang Qingguo, vice president of Hunan Changsha Civil Affairs Vocational and Technical College, also fluctuates with the above high and low data. "The weekly data will change, sometimes In the same period in previous years, it was 1 percentage point higher, sometimes 1-3 percentage points lower. But overall, the employment contract rate is lower than in previous years. "
"Like the overall situation in the country, affected by the epidemic situation, this year's employment situation is obviously more severe." This is not only a problem before Wang Qingguo, but also a hurdle that many higher vocational colleges must take.
This year, there will be 8.74 million college graduates. Among them, about 3.85 million graduates from vocational colleges. What is the employment situation of this class of vocational graduates? What new challenges are they facing, or what new features are present? How to "break the question" in higher vocational education? The reporter conducted various investigations.
Different somatosensory "sense"
Since February, a series of measures to promote the employment of graduates have been issued from the central to the localities, and various universities, enterprises and institutions have also launched various types of "cloud recruitment". However, in the view of Zheng Yali, deputy of the National People's Congress and dean of Zhejiang Vocational College of Finance, "From this period of operation, the results have not been obvious enough. In the face of the epidemic, whether it is companies or graduates, they are particularly careful and on the sidelines. "
In this regard, Long Ping, associate dean of Hunan Institute of Chemical Technology, can be said to share the same feeling. In the past years, when organizing offline job fairs, Long Ping never had to worry about it. Many companies came to sign up, and they had to go through a strict selection process before they could participate. More than 700 companies participated in the 2020 supply and demand meeting of graduates organized by the school last year. During the epidemic, there were usually only about 80 companies participating in online job fairs, and the signing rate was not high.
In this regard, Long Ping analyzed several reasons. First, the number and quality of posts were lower than in the same period of previous years, and the adaptability of students was not as high as before. Second, students were generally used to finding jobs through campus recruitment fairs. Not very adaptable; third, the mentality of the students has also changed, and they have a stronger sense of uncertainty about the future, feeling "I would rather wait and see."
For higher vocational graduates, many of them are determined by employing internships. "However, affected by the epidemic, due to factors such as late corporate resumption of work, delays and shortens the time for students to take up internships, which will affect student employment. At the same time, many companies directly reduce or stop employment recruitment plans, especially service companies "Fei Xiaoping, deputy dean of the Changzhou Institute of Information Technology, told reporters that in the February survey, it was found that about 6.43% of the students of the previously implemented unit were dismissed by the unit due to factors such as the production and operation status of the enterprise or the inability to arrive in time.
This phenomenon has also occurred in Hunan Vocational and Technical College of Chemical Industry. Long Ping told reporters that due to the impact of the epidemic, most of the students who need to be re-employed are concentrated in related majors in the service industry, such as the cosmetics management and management major at the school. About 20% of the students face this problem. "It's hard to find", almost in short supply. Non-service industry related majors, such as chemical, pharmaceutical and smart manufacturing majors, have a relatively stable employment situation.
During the epidemic, a survey data held by the Changsha Civil Affairs Vocational and Technical College showed that 272 students of the school lost their internship jobs due to the impact of the epidemic, and the impact rate accounted for 4.45% of the total survey. Wang Qingguo said that from the perspective of the impact of the college and majors, although e-commerce, business English (foreign trade), and software majors have not arrived, they have started online at home; community, funeral, and elderly care professions, due to increased demand for epidemics, employment The situation is better than in previous years; "but the tourism and accounting majors have a greater impact because the tourism industry has been hit hard, and the school's accounting majors are mainly engaged in financial work in small and medium-sized enterprises, and the epidemic has a greater impact on small and medium-sized enterprises."
In addition, in Zheng Yali's view, this is relatively good with the resumption of manufacturing, and the slow progress of service industry resumption. "Of course, we must also see that the changing situation has also brought us new opportunities, new needs, and new markets. During the epidemic, the new economy has become a bright spot. The vast majority of Internet companies, especially the development of new formats such as the Internet economy and cloud services, Not only has it not been affected, but it has expanded the development space and also provided graduates with more choices. "
"The new economy and new business form show the direction of future development. Before the outbreak, they have been developing rapidly. This outbreak just highlights them, such as industrial Internet and e-commerce live broadcast." Long Ping believes that This has also enlightened the adjustment of the school's professional settings, "to target the future market demand to train people."
Significant increase in willingness to go to college
Faced with this year's special employment situation, many students also withdrew from the army of employment, and turned around and chose "promoted to college" to continue their studies.
Among the graduates of this year ’s Changzhou Institute of Information Technology, the proportion of students who choose to pursue further studies is nearly 20% higher than last year. The number of graduates enrolling in the military is 12 times that of last year. In a survey conducted in February, the Changsha Civil Administration profession About 23.31% of the graduates of the technical colleges have the intention to apply for the "secondary promotion", but Wang Qingguo said in an interview with a reporter from the China Youth Daily and China Youth Daily that this proportion has now risen to more than 40%; similarly, Hunan The number of students enrolled in the “College Upgrade” this year at the Vocational College of Chemical Technology has also increased by 2.5 times.
The increase in this ratio has nothing to do with the Ministry of Education's clear proposal to expand the enrollment of 322,000 people this year.
In April of this year, the Hunan Provincial Department of Education issued a notice to adjust the original "university promotion" policy: in 2020, the proportion of colleges and universities that recommended college students to participate in the "university promotion" selection will be ranked in the top 20 by the average average score of each major. %, Expanding to recommend the top 40% of fresh graduates in the average grade of each major, can participate in the selection, if the top 40% of the students automatically waive the qualification for selection, they can be supplemented in order according to the conditions.
As soon as the policy came out, Ma Gueran, a junior student in Business English major at Hunan Polytechnic College, clearly felt that there were a lot of teams around him who wanted to "promote the college." "Education is a stepping stone, which can pave the way for better employment in the future." Ma Gueran had the idea of going to college from the beginning of her freshman year. She wanted to use this to improve her professional ability and education, and the epidemic has strengthened her Belief in college.
In spite of this, Zheng Yali analyzed that "expansion to college" enlarging enrollment is still a problem to solve the employment problem. Taking Zhejiang Province as an example, the number of enrollment plans for the province ’s “University Upgrade” was 14622 last year, and this year ’s enrollment expanded to 28110. In view of this, graduate employment still faces huge challenges. "
However, Fei Xiaoping also reminded that the enrollment scale of the "junior college" should be well controlled. Because the positioning and goal of higher vocational education is to train high-quality technical and applied talents. If higher vocational colleges unilaterally and excessively promote students to "promote colleges", this will cause higher vocational students' "undergraduate complex" to rise. It will have a certain impact on the normal personnel training and teaching management in higher vocational colleges, which in turn will affect the healthy development of vocational education at the junior college level.
Give higher vocational students fairer employment treatment
Unlike graduates of the master's degree, the employment of vocational students has always faced the problem of "educational discrimination". As Fei Xiaoping said, if the cost of employment is not much different, many people generally have the "985 and 211 undergraduates> general undergraduates> junior college students (higher vocational students)" education discrimination chain, the essence of education discrimination This is because "education is a quick and easy indicator to judge a candidate's learning ability."
"The current society is a typical academic society, and the employment of vocational graduates is obviously squeezed by the space of other ordinary college graduates. Similarly, this squeeze is not only in the internal system of higher education, but social employers do not recognize vocational students. High, even if a student enters bachelor's degree from a vocational college, and then graduates from a bachelor's degree to pursue a master's degree, but when he goes to the society to apply for a job, the employer may still check the education for three generations. "" Zheng Yali said.
However, Xu Ling, member of the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference, deputy chairman of the Guangdong Provincial Party Committee of the Democratic Construction Association, and vice president of Guangdong Technical Normal University, saw hope in this year's government work report to resolve this issue. In his government work report, Premier Li Keqiang pointed out: "All localities should clean up and eliminate unreasonable restrictions on employment, promote employment measures, and make full use of job expansion measures."
"Which of these are unreasonable restrictions? I think that the relevant national departments should make a list, and a certain department will take the lead in carrying out special rectification and systematic governance, rather than just staying on paper." In Xu Ling It seems that the undergraduate and higher education restrictions set in civil service recruitment and state-owned enterprise recruitment are unreasonable, "For example, some non-professional and technical civil servant positions, vocational graduate students can also be competent, at least give them a go Opportunities to compete ".
Zheng Yali also called on the government to focus on job security for vocational graduates, and to provide employment support policies for vocational graduates to stay in local cities for employment as undergraduates. Employment discrimination in the process; at the same time, in the expansion of recruitment in key areas, especially in the recruitment of primary and secondary school teachers, community workers, street and village cadres, so that vocational graduates and other college graduates have fair employment opportunities, Give higher vocational students fairer employment treatment.
At the same time, Wang Qingguo believes that higher vocational education should also strengthen its own quality, so that higher vocational students have stronger skills and more practical operations in order to be more competitive. "On this basis, it is necessary to strengthen the cultivation of students' comprehensive qualities. If students have only skills and no comprehensive ability to expand, compound and innovate, they are likely to be eliminated in a rapidly iterative society."
China Youth Daily · China Youth Daily reporter Sun Qingling Source: China Youth Daily