After investigating the eating habits of more than 200 million people in China, scientists suggest that
the cause of illness may be hidden in your home recipe
Our reporter Xie Kaifei correspondent Cao Jiayi Chen Min
Hot and spicy, donuts, barbecue, fried chicken, hot pot ... There are different flavors in all directions, some people are spicy and unhappy, some people are obsessed with desserts, and some people can't resist fried food. However, in your favorite foods, there are various diseases hidden.
Not long ago, the Journal of Diabetes published a paper by a Chinese research team. The paper surveyed more than 200 million Chinese and produced the first map of Chinese eating habits and metabolic diseases.
This research led by Shi Ningguang, academician of the Chinese Academy of Engineering, and the team of Ruijin Hospital affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University reflects the health differences caused by different cooking and taste preferences in China, especially the relationship with high blood pressure and diabetes: love deep fried barbecue In areas where there are more high blood pressure, diabetes and high body mass index (also called body mass index), the risk of diabetes is low in spicy places.
Which diseases are closely related to dietary preferences? How should ordinary people understand the relationship between diet and disease? How to cook and how to eat healthy?
Different tastes and diseases in different regions
Academician Ning Guang's team used Baidu to collect Internet data related to Chinese residents 'eating habits in 2016, and analyzed the distribution of Chinese residents' dietary preferences; combined with relevant epidemiological survey data, the residents of different dietary preferences were summarized by age, gender, and geographic The difference between location, temperature, and economic income, on this basis, leads to the correlation between dietary preferences and diseases (diabetes, hypertension).
"Research shows that most fried and grilled foods are concentrated in high latitudes around Beijing and northeast. But people in southern Hainan also prefer barbecues, and people in Guangdong also have a special liking for fried and grilled foods." "Professor Li Dahan from the College of Life Sciences of Fujian Normal University said.
The "sweet party" is mainly concentrated in coastal areas, and the northern region's love for sweets is also very prominent. The "Spicy Boiled Party" is headed by Sichuan with little difference in distribution.
What diseases are hidden in different tastes in different regions? The team's research shows that the preference for frying and grilling will lead to a high body mass index, high blood pressure and a high incidence of diabetes. Not only that, these two types of food are also related to fasting blood glucose and abnormally high blood glucose after meals.
The "fried barbecue party" is not healthy, and the "sweet party" will also be "fancy" by the disease. The study found that high intake of sweets is associated with increased incidence of diabetes and abnormally high fasting blood glucose. The "Spicy Party" was "survived." The analysis found that the degree of spicy food had an inverse relationship with the incidence of diabetes, fasting blood glucose and postprandial blood glucose levels. And the special taste of hemp also has an inverse relationship with fasting blood glucose levels.
As for why eating spicy food helps reduce the incidence of diabetes, the researchers mentioned in the discussion section of the paper that capsaicin and metabolic health studies suggest that it can reduce fasting blood glucose levels while maintaining insulin levels.
Does this mean you can eat more spicy food? Dr. Fu Caili, manager of the Center for Excellence in Health Food at the National University of Singapore Suzhou Research Institute, told reporters that although hemp and spicy show advantages in reducing the incidence of diabetes, fasting blood glucose and postprandial blood glucose levels, hemp and spicy are not suitable for the stomach and intestines People with weak functions are easy to stimulate the esophageal mucosa, affect the intestinal flora, increase the gastrointestinal burden. Excessive spicy diet often induces fever, diarrhea, and constipation.
Is this "Diet and Disease Map" representative? “Due to the large sample size, which is spread across various regions, and based on real order transaction data, the diet involved is also based on daily diet, and considering the search preferences and actual purchases, the target sample population and target data providers are highly It coincides. It can be considered as representative in urban areas where network construction and online ordering are more advanced. "Zhao, Professor of the School of Food Science, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Deputy Director of Engineering Research Center of Fujian-Taiwan Specialty Marine Food Processing and Nutrition and Health Ministry of Education Chao said.
High temperature cooking destroys nutrition and is unhealthy
"The occurrence of these diseases is closely related to different cooking methods." Li Daliang said.
The researchers analyzed that on the one hand, fried and grilled foods are cooked at high temperatures, which may produce trans fatty acids and advanced glycation end products, which have been shown to promote metabolic diseases. In addition, methods such as frying or frying reduce the moisture content of foods and increase the caloric efficiency of foods. At the same time, it is difficult for people to resist the taste and aroma of these foods, and it is easy to overeat, which further causes the emergence of metabolic diseases, such as San Gao ,obesity.
Common cooking methods include frying, frying, boiling, roasting, stewing, frying, and steaming. So which method is healthier?
Fu Caili pointed out that in terms of cooking operations, the general steaming, boiling and stewing temperature is around 100 ℃, which will not cause excessive loss and destruction of moisture and other nutrients in food. At the same time, the food produced by these cooking methods is more It is soft and rotten, which is helpful for the digestion and absorption of the human body. It is suitable for the elderly, children and people with poor gastrointestinal function.
"While frying, frying, and roasting is called high-temperature cooking, not only will the nutrients in the food be destroyed, but also some harmful substances, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and acrylamide, will cause physical diseases, including indigestion. 1. Cardiovascular disease, which leads to weight gain and even cancer; cooking is the most common way of cooking in the home, but long-term high-temperature cooking is not conducive to health, especially meat products. The fried part is best discarded. "Fu Cai Force said.
"Taking cooking potatoes as an example, stewed potatoes have the lowest energy, about 58 kcal / 100g, while fried potatoes have the highest calories, up to 471 kcal / 100g." Fu Caili said, brought by different cooking methods of the same ingredients The calories coming are different, cooking and stewing are healthier cooking methods.
Light diet reduces body metabolic burden
At present, "heavy taste" has become the normal diet of Chinese people. Li Daliang believes that diet is closely related to the occurrence of diseases, and the development of healthy eating habits can prevent physical diseases.
Li Daliang suggested that in daily life, light eating habits should be cultivated. Adults should not exceed 30 grams of cooking oil per day; salt intake should not exceed 6 grams per day; control the amount of added sugar, and daily intake should not exceed 50 grams.
"Many people talk about reducing sugar when they think of not eating sugary foods. In fact, reducing sugar includes not only the usual monosaccharides, disaccharides, fructose, but also starchy foods, such as rice and pasta." Zhao Chao pointed out that these starchy foods are also broken down into monosaccharides and disaccharides in the intestines. The standard of reducing sugar is that the energy substances such as starch and sugar eaten should be balanced with the energy consumed every day, otherwise the energy accumulated in the body will be converted into fat, thereby increasing the body's metabolic burden.
Zhao Chao suggested that most of China ’s traditional diets are normal steaming, boiling, braising, and frying. These are relatively healthy cooking operations and should be encouraged. At the same time, when cooking food, try not to use cooking oil or use a small amount of cooking oil, such as steaming, boiling, stewing, braising, etc.
"In addition, ordinary people do not have enough knowledge about the harm caused by unbalanced diets and bad cooking methods, and their knowledge of metabolism is superficial. Therefore, relevant departments should be specific about certain substances to deepen their knowledge of science popularization. Cognition. "Zhao Chao said, such as linking high sugar and high calorie and frying, frying, roasting, roasting to diabetes and obesity, high salt to high blood pressure, and citing cases to guide the public to adopt healthier cooking methods.
"This study by Academician Ning Guang's team provides important data references for China's diet and provides an effective theoretical basis for the Chinese dietary guidelines." Zhao Chao commented that the study also reminded some people to change their diets And cooking methods, can not be addicted to a certain food because of some old habits.
Zhao Chao suggested that a reasonable meal should be advocated, away from sub-health. For regions that prefer frying and grilling, the relevant local authorities should consider dietary guidance; and for regions that love sweets, consider giving specific guidelines to guide residents in reasonable sugar intake.