Differences in the labor market between women and men tend to decrease, but this is especially true early in life, according to a study published by INSEE Wednesday.
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"In forty years, the participation of women in the labor market has increased strongly to that of men: in 2018, 68% of women aged 15 to 64 are active, whether they are employed or unemployed, or 8 points less than men, this gap was 31 points in 1975, "said INSEE. This difference is especially small at the start of the career: in 2018, 1 to 4 years after leaving initial training, 83% of women are active, 3 points less than men.
Women less often unemployed
At the beginning of their working lives, women are also less often unemployed than men: in 2018, 15% of women entering the labor market are unemployed, which is 4 points less than young men. A consequence of the strong progression of the diploma level among women. In 1980, "almost a quarter of active women entering the labor market were unemployed, double the male rate," says INSEE.
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On the other hand, the situation remains unfavorable in 2018 for women already in employment for several years. In 2018, "while the median net monthly wage gap amounts to 100 euros for beginners (1,400 euros for women against 1,500 euros for men), it reaches 410 euros from 11 years of seniority ( 1,590 euros against 2,000 euros) ", according to INSEE. Part-time work partly explains these differences: for full-time employees, the median wage gap is lower, rising from 70 euros between 1 and 4 years after the end of studies to 230 euros from 11 years of age. seniority.
Adverse differences despite studies leading to higher pay
These negative differences persist, however, as young women are more likely to have higher education levels. "But other factors also influence pay (less favorable socio-professional positions in lower-paying sectors of activity, the effect of interruptions on career trajectories ...)," says INSEE.