Ranomi Kromowidjojo just failed to win a medal in the 50 meter freestyle on Sunday.
The Groningen finished fourth in the final.
Thirty-year-old Kromowidjojo participated until the end for a podium place and tapped in 24.30, but that was not enough for the medal.
The Danish Pernille Blume, the 2016 Olympic champion, was nine hundredths faster (24.21) and took the bronze.
The gold went to the Australian Emma McKeon, who was the only one to dive under 24 seconds and set a new Olympic record with 23.81.
Sweden's Sarah Sjöström took silver in 24.07.
Because of her fourth place Kromowidjojo flies back to the Netherlands without medals.
At the Games of five years ago in Rio de Janeiro, the three-time Olympic champion (just like the rest of the long track team) also failed to get a podium place.