Parenting is one of the reasons that the income differences between women and men persist. The average income of women falls sharply after the birth of the first child, while for men there is a very limited effect on income. The Central Planning Bureau (CPB) reports this Thursday.

The agency investigated the aspects that determine women's long-term labor participation, the effect of parenthood on income and the collective benefits of economic independence for women.

The loss in income of women compared to men after having children is also referred to by the CPB as the "child penalty".

The pay gap between women and men arises in the first two years after the birth of the first child. This difference is not getting smaller in the first eight years. On average, the pay gap in the eight years after birth is 39 percent.

In that sense, the Netherlands is doing worse than Scandinavia, but better than our eastern neighbors. For example, the "child penalty" in Denmark is 21 percent, in Sweden 27 percent, and the United States is also 31 percent better than the Netherlands. The United Kingdom scores worse, with 44 percent, and Austria (51 percent) and Germany (61 percent) are also doing less well.