Wiesbaden (dpa) - In the German labor market people have more often found a regular main job with social insurance.
Atypical forms of employment, such as temporary contracts, temporary work, short part-time or mini-jobs, have declined over the past year, but still account for a good fifth of all employment, as reported by the Federal Statistical Office.
Women benefited most from the trend last year. Compared to the previous year, around 300,000 women also had a socially insured main job with more than 20 hours a week working hours.
The increase of 2.8 per cent to 11.1 million persons was higher than that of men (+1.0 per cent) and thus in the totality of the so-called "core workers", reported the Wiesbaden authority. It refers to workers between the ages of 15 and 64 who are not in education, training or volunteering.
However, women are still much more likely to find employment than "atypical" employment. According to the figures from the microcensus, this applies to almost every third working woman, but only to barely 12 percent of the men.
Of the 7.5 million atypical employment relationships, around two thirds (5.1 million) were women last year. Even in part-time jobs with more than 20 hours per week, which are considered "normal", women are clearly in the majority with a ratio of 3.4 million to 460,000 men.
According to a study published in June by the Economics and Social Sciences Institute of the Böckler Foundation, however, younger people and foreigners also have an increased risk of ending up in atypical jobs, which are usually poorly paid.
In later life, they often feel the consequences: Atypical employment, according to the social association VdK, is a risk with regard to the pension. For example, many women forgo full-time parenting education and instead work in mini or part-time jobs. So they later received only a small pension and were particularly often affected by poverty in old age.
However, the definition of atypical employment is controversial. Thus, the associations of temporary employment agencies defend against the classification, because they regularly registered their people in the social security and stopped for an indefinite period.
The German Trade Union Confederation (DGB) counters this by saying that agency workers and mini-jobbers are often used under their actual qualifications. The official statistics also include just under 3.5 million self-employed, of which only just over half (1.9 million) are traveling as solo entrepreneurs.
From the point of view of the Federal Association of German Employers' Associations (BDA), flexible forms of employment such as mini-jobs are also indispensable for labor market dynamics. They facilitate entry into employment and offer new employment prospects for the low-skilled and long-term unemployed, the association said.
Report of the Institute of Economics and Social Sciences of the Hans Böckler Foundation
DGB for temporary work