The winner of the Nobel Peace Prize will be announced on Friday at 11 a.m. There is regular discussion about the winners. NU.nl lists the most controversial recipients of the peace prize.
Some of the names that ended up on the shortlist of potential winners of the Nobel Peace Prize are shocking. Adolf Hitler, Benito Mussolini and Jozef Stalin were all nominated.
In the case of Hitler, that was by accident: the Swedish diplomat who nominated him as "Prince of World Peace" in 1939 - three months before the German invasion of Poland - later said he intended that sarcastic.
There is also a regular fuss about the actual winners, because not everyone agrees in advance about their suitability as peacemakers, or because of their actions after receiving the prize.
Henry Kissinger (1973)
The then American Foreign Minister Henry Kissinger won the peace prize together with the Vietnamese revolutionary, general and diplomat Le Duc Tho. They received the prize because they had agreed a cease-fire in the Vietnam War, the so-called Paris peace agreements.
Kissinger's nomination immediately led to a frown, as he was known as a war hawk and as a minister at the end of 1972 he was also responsible for the 20,000 tons of bombs dropped by the US Air Force on the Vietnamese city of Hanoi.
It soon became apparent during the negotiations that Kissinger had ordered secret carpet bombing in Cambodia, a country that was not directly involved in the war. An estimated eight hundred thousand people were killed. The most serious bombing took place three months after the signing of the treaty.
Le Duc Tho became the first person in history to reject the peace prize, Kissinger did pick up his.
"Political satire became superfluous when Kissinger received the Nobel Prize," commented American satirist and musician Tom Lehry at the time.
Shimon Peres, Yitzhak Rabin and Yasser Arafat (1994)
Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin, Foreign Minister Shimon Peres, and Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat received the Peace Prize for the Oslo Accords, which were to serve as the first impetus for a permanent solution to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.
Peres and Arafat in particular were controversial winners. The former played an important role for decades in the nuclear program that turned Israel into a nuclear force. That is inconsistent with the Swedish Academy 's requirement that winners of the peace prize must have committed themselves to the demilitarization of their country, critics argued.
In addition, two years after receiving the prize, Peres was responsible for the artillery bombing of a UN base in Lebanon, killing 106 civilians.
Arafat was one of the founders of the guerrilla movement (and later political party) Fatah, who, among other things, committed terrorist attacks. As a Palestinian leader, he was also involved in the First Intifada (1987-1993), a popular uprising in the Palestinian Territories against the Israeli occupation that was ended by the Oslo Accords.
The uprising led to hundreds of deaths and around 40,000 wounded on the Palestinian side and 164 killed on the Israeli side. In addition, around a thousand Palestinians were killed by other Palestinians for alleged collaboration with Israel.
Aung San Suu Kyi (1991)
Myanmarese politician Aung San Suu Kyi won her Nobel Prize for her "non-violent fight for democracy and human rights" in the political opposition to the military junta. Because she was under house arrest, she could only pick up the prize 21 years later (in 2012). When the country held free elections in 2015 for the first time in a quarter of a century, its party won an absolute majority in parliament and became de facto government leader.
Under her reign, the Myanmar army started a ruthless campaign in 2016 against Rohingya's in Rakhine state. The security operation was initially a response to attacks by militant Rohingyas. But the operation was seized from the outset as an opportunity to deal with the Muslim minority people, who have the status of second-class citizen in Myanmar and are strongly distrusted by the Buddhist majority.
The UN calls the action of the Myanmar army a "textbook example of ethnic cleansing". Hundreds of thousands of Rohingyas fled to neighboring Bangladesh.
The Myanmar leader Suu Kyi firmly denies that there are systematic human rights violations, despite a surplus of evidence to the contrary.
This led to an internationally-accepted call to withdraw its peace prize. The Nobel Committee announced in August that it would not ponder. Suu Kyi won her Nobel Prize in 1991 for the things she had achieved up to that point. Moreover, the statutes of the Academy do not allow a prize to be withdrawn, according to chairman Olav Njoelstad.
Nobel Prize has been awarded 98 times since 1901
The prize, which will be awarded again on Friday, consists of a gold medal and a sum of money of 870,000 euros. It is the reward for those who have been most committed to peace in the past year. There have been 131 winners - or Nobel laureates -: 104 people and 27 organizations.
The International Red Cross won the Nobel Peace Prize three times (in 1917, 1944 and 1963). The United Nations Refugee Office (UNCHR) won twice (in 1954 and 1981).
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