In recent months, Iranian hackers have attacked three Dutch universities and a higher professional education institution. The NOS writes this Friday after research by consultancy company PwC.

PwC says the hackers are carrying out attacks to steal teaching materials, so that the Iranian government can provide students in Iran with knowledge. It is not clear which training courses are involved in the Netherlands and what the hackers have seized. Universities in other European countries, Australia and the United States would also have been affected.

Hackers would sell the stolen books and other forms of teaching materials on Iranian websites. There the stolen goods are offered at low prices.

PwC reports that students' login details are also captured and shared on Iranian forums so that Iranian students can use them to access digital libraries.

The hackers arrive via phishing attacks, among other things. In addition, students are led to a fake site that looks like a legitimate website of a study program. The hackers then copy the entered login data.