Yang Wenxian

"When you know the east wind face, thousands of purples and thousands of reds are always spring." Spring returns to the earth, all things recover, another year of green grass, and another spring flower. In the beautiful spring light, have you been impatient to go out of the house in search of spring?

At the beginning of 2023, marathons in various places began to be held in full swing. There were 181 marathons across the country this year, with 3 and 4 marathons in March and April, respectively. There are 74 events with a scale of more than 67,20000 people (inclusive), 22 events with a scale of 10000,20000 (inclusive) to 79,10000 people (excluded), and 80 events with a scale of less than <>,<> people. Such a large-scale event, can not avoid the occurrence of sports injuries, today let's understand the risk factors of sports, know the risks in advance, and prevent them in advance.

1. Sudden death from exercise

For people who participate in exercise training, prepare to improve exercise level, or have cardiovascular risk factors, it is important to conduct medical screening, cardiovascular disease risk screening and stratification before exercise. Exercise is a very important strategy and measure for the prevention, treatment and rehabilitation of cardiovascular diseases, and moderate physical activity can improve cardiorespiratory endurance, reduce the incidence of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. Although the probability of serious cardiovascular events such as myocardial infarction and sudden cardiac death when participating in sports is very low, when the age is older, there are underlying diseases, when you choose sports that are not suitable for you, exercise at an inappropriate time point or exercise with higher intensity and a longer period of time, there is still a certain risk, and once it occurs, it often causes greater social impact.

Therefore, understanding the cardiovascular risks during exercise and learning how to exercise scientifically can effectively reduce the risk of serious cardiovascular events. There is a consensus of Chinese experts on how to prevent sudden sports-related death or cardiovascular accidents, and the specific content is as follows:

The consensus mentions that assessment should be performed with cardiovascular risk stratification, which is based on the following variables:

According to the figure on the right, the cardiovascular risk assessment of exercise is divided into low-risk (low-risk) and high-risk (high-risk).

Low risk level (low risk): There is no core variable and at most 1 non-core variable exists.

High risk level (high risk): 1 item ≥ core variable or 2 items ≥ non-core variable.

You can perform a simple assessment rating using the above methods. For people at high risk of cardiovascular disease, it is still recommended to go to a medical institution for exercise training until the risk is reduced; For people with low-risk cardiovascular diseases, home training or exercise training in medical institutions or places with monitoring conditions can be considered, and there will be all-round monitoring and professional control risks; For people who exercise at home, consider wearing monitoring equipment to monitor simple indicators such as heart rate for a long time. Although wearable devices are helpful for self-monitoring and exercise intensity adjustment, it is recommended to go to the hospital for evaluation and training for high-risk patients.

If we don't wear monitoring equipment, we also have indicators that we can control, which mainly rely on symptoms, autonomous fatigue scores, and speaking tests. For example, during moderate-intensity physical activity, speak to the point where you are about to break a sentence. Reminder: If the individual has chest pain, breath holding and other symptoms before reaching moderate intensity, stop exercising and undergo medical screening.

How to judge and respond to emergencies?

If you experience discomfort during exercise, it is recommended to stop exercising immediately and sit down to rest. Fluctuations in blood pressure, increased heart rate, dyspnea, angina, etc., can be relieved after rest. At your next exercise session, adjust your exercise regimen as appropriate for your previous situation. If, after rest, it still does not relieve itself, medical advice is required.

The most dangerous condition in exercise is sudden cardiac death. The most effective means to reduce the occurrence of sudden cardiac death is to evaluate symptoms before each exercise, identify risks early, and prevent them. However, once sudden cardiac death occurs, the emergency procedure needs to be initiated immediately. While making calls and asking for help, try CPR.

Pre-exercise recommendations for individuals

Before performing physical activities, individuals should understand heart-related symptoms, learn to control exercise intensity, understand that physical exercise should follow the rules, and the amount of exercise should gradually increase under monitoring, step by step; Understand the risks that exercise can lead to and when you need to stop exercising and seek immediate medical attention.

When exercising, it should be gradual. Generally, in the first 4~6 weeks of the exercise plan, the training duration of each training is extended by 1~2min every 5~10 weeks. When regular exercise is done for at least 1 month, the frequency, intensity and time can be gradually increased in the next 4~8 months to achieve the recommended individualized exercise quantity and quality. Overall, exercise improves cardiorespiratory endurance and reduces cardiovascular morbidity and all-cause mortality; The effect of exercise on cardiopulmonary function has a dose-dependent effect, and long-term adherence is recommended; High-intensity exercise may present certain risks, medical evaluation if necessary; For initial exercise, or new-onset symptoms, or those planning to increase exercise intensity, cardiovascular risk stratification and an appropriate assessment process are recommended.

2. Sports injury risk


A sprain is an injury that affects ligaments, and the most common cause of injury is a tear caused by overstretching. Among them, ankle sprains are the most common sprain site. The site of injury after a sprain is characterized by pain and swelling, and the location of the injury usually occurs on the lateral ligament, and severe sprains may lead to ligament tears. Once a sprain occurs, stop exercising immediately and rest, and apply ice to the injured area if possible. If the pain is severe, see a doctor for further treatment.


Strains occur when muscle fibers or tendons are torn, mostly due to sudden movement, and are common among tennis players, golfers, and hockey players. Strains can cause muscle spasms, swelling, and difficulty moving the affected body part, which is usually found in areas such as the legs, arms, neck, and back. If you encounter a strain, you need to stop exercising immediately, in most cases it can be cured by rest, ice, and in rare cases may require surgery to solve a serious strain.

Plantar fasciitis

Plantar fasciitis is a foot disorder that is most common in runners and in exercises that focus on the lower extremities. The plantar fascia is a tissue band that runs from the heel to the toes, and its injury is characterized by pain in the heel or sole. Biological factors contributing to plantar fasciitis include dyspronation, high arch or flat feet, tight Achilles tendons, and tight calf muscles.

The treatment schedule of plantar fasciitis can be abbreviated as RICE: Rest (Rest on Impusion), Ice (Ice), Compression (Compression Bandage) and Elevation (Elevate the affected area), which is also the principle of management of most sports injuries. In addition, some severe patients may need to use drugs under the guidance of a doctor to reduce inflammation, as well as stretching (when appropriate) and massage to relieve tension.

Iliotibial band syndrome

Iliotibial band syndrome is also one of the most common overuse injuries in runners as well as in lower extremity exercises. The iliotibial band is a tissue band that runs from the outside of the buttocks down to the outside of the knee to the tibia. The pain is usually caused by the iliiotibial band rubbing at the knee (outside the tibia). Friction in this area is aggravated when lower extremity movements or muscle tissue tension are performed on uneven surfaces, in addition to wearing worn or ill-fitting shoes can also lead to iliotibial band syndrome.

Therefore, in the face of this situation, the first choice is to stop the lower limb movement, stretch and relax the muscle tissue, and choose the appropriate wearing equipment. In severe cases, an orthosis may be needed to address mechanical problems caused by changes in body shape.

3. Risk of pain


Low back pain can be caused by hamstring tightness, muscle imbalance, core muscle weakness, poor posture, incorrect forms of exercise, and falls. Most low back pain is caused by disorders and weakness of muscle tissue. In order to prevent further pain, it is necessary to pay attention to the correct form and neutral alignment of the spine at all times in daily life. People with low back pain should strengthen the core and stretch the legs, waist, lumbar spine and buttocks. Use the RICE method mentioned above to relieve pain after a workout.

Knee pain

Knee pain is not uncommon among people who love sports, especially runners and other lower limb exercisers. Most knee problems stem from overuse, wear and tear, wearing incorrect shoes, muscle imbalance or abnormalities such as uneven leg length, arched legs, and knee injuries.

Knee pain is treated differently than other injuries. Usually, knee pain goes away with muscle strength training, the right shoe shape, or an orthosis. If the pain persists for 2 weeks or more, it is necessary to consult a professional in time, such as a sports medicine doctor or podiatrist. Of course, in daily prevention, we should also pay attention to wearing suitable shoes for exercise.