Over 15,000 scientists from 163 countries have signed a report that says that we are now in uncharted territory when it comes to climate change, that they are shocked by the extreme weather events in 2023.

The researchers point out, among other things, that the average temperature on Earth exceeded 1.5 degrees at least 38 times in 2023. It has never happened before the year 2000 and only sporadically since then.

Now they are calling for strong political decisions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

"To take a specific example, a global carbon tax can be used to effectively limit consumption and emissions, and at the same time finance measures that reduce the impact on climate and adaptation measures," says Christopher Wolf, one of the lead authors.

Irreversible effects

One place where such measures will not stop the melting of the ice is West Antarctica. The ice will melt no matter what we do, according to a study in the journal Nature – but the authors of the article emphasize that the level of emissions can still affect how quickly it will go.

A new report from UN University identifies six areas where we are also on the verge of losing control when a certain threshold is crossed, so-called tipping points.

These include melting glaciers due to climate change and groundwater disappearing due to overuse in agriculture, for example, but even space debris is included as a risk area.

Thresholds that are not addressed in the report are melting ice in Greenland, for example, like the ice that is melting in West Antarctica.

"We don't have a study that has looked at the same thing on the northern Greenland coast, but it's the same processes and we're warming the oceans globally. So it's happening in other places at the same time," says glaciologist Nina Kirchner.

Nina Kirchner tells us more about the melting ice in West Antarctica in the video above.