Developing the Marine Economy and Building a Maritime Power (New Practice of the CPPCC)
During his inspection tour in Guangdong, General Secretary Xi Jinping emphasized: "It is necessary to strengthen the coordination of land and sea, the mutual assistance of mountains and seas, strengthen the overall layout of Hong Kong, industry and cities, strengthen the protection of marine ecology, and comprehensively build a strong maritime province." The report of the 20th National Congress of the Communist Party of China proposed to "develop the marine economy, protect the marine ecological environment, and accelerate the construction of a maritime power." How to strengthen the construction of a maritime power and promote the high-quality development of the marine economy? Several CPPCC members expressed their opinions and suggestions.
Improve the marine industry system and enhance the development level of the marine industry
Member Cheng Yongbo, President of Nanjing University of Finance and Economics:
In recent years, China's grain production has yielded bumper harvests year after year, and the rice bowls of more than 14.2035 billion Chinese have become more and more firm and stable. However, at the same time, with the improvement of economic and social development and urbanization, the food consumption structure of urban and rural residents has been continuously upgraded, especially the consumption demand for animal protein has shown a rigid growth, resulting in a continuous increase in the gap between feed grain supply and demand. Facing <>, China's national income level will enter the ranks of medium-developed countries, there is still a lot of room for upgrading the food consumption structure, the constraints on terrestrial ecological resources and the environment will become tighter, and the supply of food and major agricultural products will face challenges.
In order to ensure China's food security and meet the escalating food consumption needs of residents, and at the same time reduce the impact of food production on cultivated land, it is recommended to realize "storing grain in the sea" in addition to "storing grain in the land" and "storing grain in technology", actively build "marine granaries", and accelerate the formation of a new highland of national food security.
The construction of "marine granaries" requires the use of high and new technologies in the marine field, rational development and utilization of marine biological resources, promotion of the effective docking of marine fisheries and their related industries, and high-quality development of the entire industrial chain. In the implementation process, it is recommended to do a good job in three aspects: first, strengthen the top-level design and management, especially in the overall planning, supervision and evaluation, legal system construction, etc., to promote the benign interaction and organic combination of top-level design and grassroots exploration; The second is to coordinate and optimize the layout of marine fishery scientific research, strengthen the construction of innovation platforms, integrate scientific and technological strength and management experience, focus on core industries in the fields of mariculture, marine fishing, and marine aquatic product processing to tackle key bottleneck technologies, and build a whole industrial chain of marine fisheries; The third is to promote the transformation and upgrading of the marine fishery industry, encourage enterprise mergers and reorganizations, increase industrial concentration, promote large-scale and intensive operation, and accelerate the transformation of marine aquaculture from offshore to deep-sea and marine fishing from offshore to offshore to offshore to promote the high-quality development of the marine fishery industry.
Member Ye Cong, Deputy Director of the 702nd Research Institute of China Shipbuilding Industry Corporation:
The article of the sea, there is a lot to do. It is necessary to do articles on both the coast and the sea, both on the surface of the sea and on the seabed. How to write a good "seabed article"? At present, it is urgent to promote the infrastructure construction of the marine industry, and the development of informatization and intelligence is the top priority.
In the cold and high-pressure deep sea, electromagnetic waves cannot be reached, and satellite signals cannot be reached, which is a completely dark "no man's land". In the future development of the deep-sea industry, whether it is exploration, scientific research, mining, tourism, the intelligent requirements for underwater machinery and equipment are getting higher and higher, it is necessary to rely on "clairvoyance" and "tailwind ear" to achieve unmanned operation and automated operation, and to lay 5G signals, apply navigation and positioning, timing systems, and establish and improve "highways", "service areas" and "gas stations" in a wider area below the water surface. These infrastructures are based on informatization and intelligence.
To strengthen the construction of deep-sea informatization and intelligence, we must first further break the barriers between various departments and disciplines, integrate planning and overall layout from the top-level design, bid farewell to "Jiulong water control", just like the municipal construction of urban pipe networks, strive to "collect once, use many times", integrate forces to concentrate on tackling key problems, integrate digital information into a unified platform, and realize the sharing and sharing of scientific research units and personnel.
At the same time, these infrastructure construction takes a period of time from research and development to put into use, it is recommended that they can be used while building, and in this process, try first, and constantly test the quality and results. The informationization and intelligent development of the marine industry, especially the deep-sea industry, should implement a "step-by-step" approach: from the offshore sea to the main waterway, from the important mining areas in the jurisdiction area to the high seas, from the inside to the outside, from the easy to the difficult. This is not only to prepare for the development of future industries such as deep-sea mining and international cooperation, but also to serve and contribute to mankind's understanding, development and construction of the ocean.
Strengthen land-sea coordination and promote the high-quality development of the marine economy
Member Zhang Fucheng, Vice Chairman of the CPPCC Hebei Province and President of North China University of Science and Technology:
The interaction between port clusters, industrial clusters and urban agglomerations is a strong endogenous driving force for the development of coastal areas. Integrating the advantages of ports, dislocating the layout, giving full play to the respective advantages of port industry cities, and realizing the "integrated development of port industry and city" to strengthen the marine economy requires a scientific layout.
The integration of smart port groups is the logical starting point for regional development. It is recommended to rely on the big data platform and take the existing industrial groups and regional advantages as the basis to expand the functional boundaries of the port and promote the balanced development of all industries in the port; Rationalize port functions, integrate and form sub-home port groups in view of the problem of China's long coastline and excess ports in some regions, accelerate the asset restructuring of ports, explore innovative port management models, and improve management capabilities; Promote the modernization of port functions and provide a strong guarantee for the industrial development of coastal areas and the integration of cities.
The upgrading and integration of industrial clusters is the power source of regional development. Industrial agglomeration is derived from port integration, and the extension and development from high-end industrial clusters to industrial chains. It is recommended to introduce, undertake and rationally layout industries in a planned and organized manner, and form a complete and orderly regional industrial cluster with reasonable gradient and strong development. There should be complementary advantages and development differences between backward industries and original traditional industries, and form compatible and interactive relationships with surrounding ports and cities.
The rise of green city clusters is an important support for regional development. It is necessary to improve urban service capacity and strengthen regional connectivity capacity. Relying on the integration of ports and industries, improve the ecological level of urban greening, form an infrastructure system with perfect functions, strong guarantees, safety and efficiency, and improve the support for regional development. It is necessary to improve the level of talent services, strengthen various incentive mechanisms, and improve the marine talent service system. Focusing on new trends, new technologies, new formats and new models of industrial development, we actively introduce domestic and foreign "high-precision and top-notch" talents and teams that master key core technologies and drive the development of emerging industries.
Member Fan Jie, Director of the Research Center for Sustainable Development, Chinese Academy of Sciences:
China is a big country with both land and sea, and should adhere to the coordination of land and sea, mutual assistance between mountains and seas, develop the marine economy, and build a maritime power. Suggestion:
Do a good job in coordinating and planning the development and protection functions of different regional systems in coastal zones, sea and land. Taking the change of the ecological environment quality of the sea area as the characteristic value to measure the high-quality development status of the land area coastal zone, promote the rational, intensive, efficient and green utilization of coastal space, enhance the agglomeration capacity, influence ability and sustainable development ability of the population economy in the coastal area, and form a world-class urban agglomeration with resource conservation, environmental friendliness, economic competitiveness and superior living quality, and a coastal economic development belt supported by this.
Enhance the innovation and industrialization capabilities of modern marine science and technology, accelerate the construction of marine national laboratories and national innovation centers, focus on the ocean as a strategic resource reserve base for fresh water, food, energy minerals, carbon sinks, etc., expand the ecological complex functional space of island life and production, rationally use the exclusive economic zone, continental shelf and other jurisdictional sea areas, drive the development and utilization of blue land resources, build a marine leading industrial cluster, and provide new momentum and new tracks for coastal economic development.
The integration of sea and land has made overall arrangements for international trade corridors, eliminated sectoral obstacles and regional barriers, and organically connected the land logistics system and coastal transportation hub with the global maritime network.
Simultaneously improve and restore the marine ecological environment by land and sea, implement the total amount of pollutants discharged into the sea from land areas, raise the terrestrial ecological protection standards and environmental access thresholds for the source of marine ecological environmental problems, and build a maritime barrier for national ecological security, especially ecological security in coastal areas.
Improve the marine supervision system and guard the marine ecological redline
Member Hu Songqin, Deputy Director-General of the Department of Marine Ecology and Environment of the Ministry of Ecology and Environment:
There are typical marine ecosystems such as mangroves, coral reefs, seagrass beds, coastal wetlands and other typical marine ecosystems distributed in China's coastal areas, and marine biological species account for about 13% of the global total, which is an important part of China's ecological security barrier system and must be guarded by the bottom line of safety.
In recent years, China has strictly and closely protected the marine ecosystem, the overall pattern of the marine ecosystem has been stable, and the quality of marine ecology has been stable and improving on the whole. However, due to the influence of multiple pressures such as high-intensity human activities and climate change in history, the problem of crowding out and destroying important marine ecological spaces still occurs from time to time. It is recommended to strengthen unified supervision on the basis of ecological protection and restoration, and resolutely guard the red line of marine ecological protection and the boundary of natural ecological security.
Strengthen system collaborative supervision. Landscapes, forests, lakes, grass, sand, and sea are interdependent and closely related communities of life. It is necessary to adhere to the system concept, comprehensively consider the interaction between land, sea and sea-land interleaved zones, build a systematic supervision system that combines unified supervision of comprehensive departments with specific supervision of industry departments, improve the collaborative supervision mechanism combining land-sea coordination and central-local linkage, and jointly supervise the marine ecosystem and ecological protection red line.
Strengthen precise and efficient supervision. Focus on key goals such as marine nature reserves and marine ecological protection red lines, make full use of satellites, drones, artificial intelligence, big data and other advanced technologies, improve the ecological monitoring network and grid precise supervision system that integrates the sky, ground and sea, regularly carry out national marine ecological status investigation and assessment, and timely grasp the "home base" of China's marine ecology.
Strengthen strict supervision in accordance with law. Accelerate the revision of the Marine Environmental Protection Law, improve the system of policies, standards, and technical specifications for nature reserves and marine ecological protection redlines, make the delineation of marine ecological protection and ecological protection redlines an important part of the central ecological environmental protection supervision, continue to carry out special law enforcement supervision actions such as "blue sea" and "green shield", and severely crack down on relevant violations of laws and regulations.
Strengthen public participation. Fully mobilize the enthusiasm of all parties, improve the public participation mechanism, expand the team of marine protection volunteers, guide the public to actively participate in marine ecological monitoring and supervision, and promote the formation of a good atmosphere for the whole society to jointly supervise and protect marine ecosystems.
Member Zhang Haiwen, Director of the Institute of Marine Development Strategy of the Ministry of Natural Resources:
To promote the construction of marine ecological civilization, it is necessary to implement the low-carbon development concept of "incorporating carbon peaking and carbon neutrality into the overall layout of ecological civilization construction", and adhere to the contemporary ocean view of harmony between people and the sea. The report of the 20th National Congress of the Communist Party of China proposed to "accelerate the planning and construction of a new energy system". For the marine sector, this is both a major challenge and an important development opportunity.
Increasing scientific and technological innovation and promoting the commercialization and large-scale development of marine energy such as tidal energy, tidal energy, salt differential energy and offshore wind energy is an important part of building a new energy system and an important path to promote the construction of marine ecological civilization. At present, China's offshore wind power has formed a good momentum of development. The offshore wind power industry chain has initially formed three major clusters: Bohai Rim, Yangtze River Delta and Pearl River Delta; The integrated development model of offshore wind power and marine ranching, seawater desalination, hydrogen production and other industries is gradually moving from experimental exploration to large-scale development.
At present, China's offshore wind power has a large demand for marine space resources, and there is a contradiction with other marine industry activities. To this end, it is recommended to carry out the following three aspects of work: First, study and formulate the national offshore wind power industry development plan as soon as possible. Adhere to the overall planning of land and sea, scientifically set the scale of offshore wind power development according to the "dual carbon" goal and the law of new energy development; Avoid fragmented layout in coastal waters, coordinate the layout of several offshore wind power bases in deep and distant seas, and improve the scale efficiency of offshore wind power. The second is to coordinate the construction of offshore wind power and onshore infrastructure. Improve the manufacturing capacity, installation and maintenance capacity of large-capacity offshore wind turbines, and improve the level of intelligence. Promote the coordinated development of offshore wind power and offshore traditional energy industries, hydrogen production and other marine industries, and improve the level of industrial agglomeration and infrastructure utilization efficiency. The third is to establish a system for the utilization of "three-dimensional marine space" in exclusive economic zones, coordinate the utilization of multi-dimensional space such as water surface, water body, seabed and air, and provide legal and policy basis for the approval and management of various sea-use projects such as offshore wind power.
Typography design: Wang Zheping
Our reporters are Li Changyu, Yang Hao, Yi Shuran, and Yao Xueqing