What is metformin and how does it work, what is its role in slimming, does it increase fertility, and then when to take metformin, before or after eating?
Metformin is a medicine used to treat type II diabetes and gestational diabetes. It is also used to help prevent type two diabetes if you are at risk, according to the UK's National Health Service (NHS).
Type II diabetes is a condition in which the body doesn't produce enough insulin or the insulin it makes isn't working properly. This can cause high blood sugar levels.
Metformin lowers blood sugar levels by improving the way the body handles insulin.
Metformin is usually prescribed for diabetes when diet and exercise alone are not enough to control blood sugar levels.
Metformin is also sometimes used to control the symptoms of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a condition that affects how the ovaries work.
Metformin treats PCOS by lowering insulin and blood sugar levels. It can also improve ovulation and encourage regular menstrual cycles, even if the woman doesn't have diabetes.
Metformin 500 is a form of metformin. It comes in tablet form, each containing 500 milligrams of metformin hydrochloride.
A 500 milligram or 850 mg dose of metformin is usually started two or three times daily during or after meals. After 3 to 10 days, dose should be adjusted based on blood glucose measurements.
How does metformin work?
Metformin starts to act in your gut. Some scientists believe that it alters the balance of the natural microflora in the digestive tract. It also triggers certain enzymes that help the body use fat more effectively, according to a report in WebMD.
Scientists are also trying to understand how metformin leads to weight loss. Because it alters the gut bacteria, digestive problems are a common side effect. So one early theory was that stomach pain caused people to lose their appetite and eat less, or that they had lost water weight due to diarrhea. But most of these side effects disappear within a few weeks. People who lost weight on metformin went on to lose their pounds after that time.
The most likely explanation is that metformin changes in the gastrointestinal tract reduce appetite. It may raise the levels of the hormone leptin in the body, making you feel full, since your appetite doesn't work overtime, you eat less.
The weight you lose on medication comes mostly from fat stores, not the lean fat and muscle mix that occurs with dieting. People who took metformin also noticed measurements of lower waist and waist-to-hip ratios, two ways to measure body fat.
Side effects of metformin
These common metformin side effects occur in more than 1 in 100 people, such as:
- Stomach pain
- Loss of appetite
- metallic taste in the mouth
Metformin and hypoglycemia
Metformin doesn't usually cause low blood sugar when taken alone, but hypoglycemia can occur when you take metformin with other diabetes medications, such as insulin or glycazide.
Early warning signs of low blood sugar include:
- Feeling hungry
- Difficulty concentrating
It's also possible for your blood sugar to drop too much while you sleep. If this happens, it can make you sweat, tired and confused when you wake up.
A drop in blood sugar may occur if:
- I took a lot of some types of diabetes medications.
- I ate meals at regular times or skipped meals.
- She did not follow a healthy diet and did not get enough nutrients.
- You exercise a lot without eating enough carbohydrates.
- You took some medications or other herbal remedies at the same time.
- You have a hormonal disorder, such as an underactive thyroid.
- You have kidney or liver problems.
To prevent hypoglycemia, it's important to eat regular meals, including breakfast, and try not to miss or delay the meal.
If you plan to exercise more than usual, be sure to eat carbohydrates such as bread, pasta or cereal before, during, or after your workout.
Always carry fast-acting carbohydrates, such as sugar cubes, fruit juice or some sweets, as if your blood sugar level is low, artificial sweeteners won't help.
You may also need to eat starchy carbohydrates, such as a sandwich or biscuit, to keep your blood sugar longer.
Call your doctor or emergency if eating sugar doesn't help, or symptoms of hypoglycemia return.
Make sure your friends and family are aware of diabetes and the symptoms of low blood sugar levels so they can recognize hypoglycemia if it occurs.
Long-term side effects of metformin
Taking metformin can cause vitamin B12 deficiency if taken for a long time. This can make you feel very tired, short of breath and faint, so your doctor may check the level of vitamin B12 in your blood.
If vitamin B12 levels become too low, vitamin B12 supplementation will help.
Metformin before or after eating?
Metformin should be taken with meals to help reduce stomach or intestinal side effects that may occur during the first few weeks of treatment, according to the Mayo Clinic.
Metformin for polycystic
Metformin is often used to treat type II diabetes, but it can also lower insulin and blood sugar levels in women with PCOS.
In addition to stimulating ovulation, encouraging regular periods and reducing the risk of miscarriage, metformin can also have other long-term health benefits, such as lowering high cholesterol levels and reducing the risk of heart disease, according to the UK's National Health Service.
Metformin and pregnancy
Metformin can stimulate fertility, so if you're considering using it to treat PCOS, don't try to get pregnant and make sure you use the right contraception.
Treatment of metformin and pregnancy
Metformin is safe during pregnancy either alone or with insulin.
Metformin and lactation
If your doctor or midwife says your baby is healthy, you can take metformin while breastfeeding.
Metformin passes into breast milk in small amounts and has not been linked to side effects for any breastfed baby.
Metformin isn't expected to cause side effects, but contact your doctor, midwifery nurse or pharmacist as soon as possible if your child:
- It does not feed as usual.
- It looks unusually sleepy or sleepy.
- He looks unusually restless or irritable.
- It looks pale or sweatier than usual.
- It seems hungrier than usual.
- Pees more.
- It causes you any other concerns.
Metformin and fertility
There is no evidence to suggest that taking metformin reduces fertility in men or women.
In fact, metformin is sometimes prescribed to try to improve ovulation and fertility if you have PCOS.
Metformin for slimming
In 2020, a British study revealed the molecular mechanisms behind the success of metformin in weight loss.
The study was conducted by researchers at the University of Cambridge and published in the journal Nature.
In 1995, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved metformin as a treatment for type <> diabetes, decades after it was approved in Europe, the researchers said.
They added that more than 60 percent of the drug's ability to control blood sugar comes from its success in reducing body weight, prompting them to conduct further studies to derive the key molecular mechanisms underlying how the drug works.
In clinical trials in humans without diabetes, the research team discovered a link between metformin and a key protein known as GDF159.
According to the study, the protein carries out a wide range of biological activities and is found in a variety of body tissues that regulate the mechanism of "programmed cell death" and repair.
It has also been shown that this protein also plays a strong role in the success of metformin in controlling type II diabetes.
The researchers discovered that metformin works with GDF 159 to induce the body to lose weight and maintain energy balance.
They also found that the drug significantly increased GDF 159 levels in all people who regularly took the drug by 2.5 times compared to those without the drug, after an 18-month study to monitor participants' protein levels.
The team conducted other experiments on mice and discovered that metformin increased levels of GDF-159 and suppressed body weight gain even after subjecting the mice to a high-fat diet.
Lead author Dr Stephen O'Reilly said: "Metformin was first used as a drug-lowering sugar in patients with type II diabetes, but their weight loss rates were modest.
"Only when long-term studies were conducted in non-diabetic participants, it became clear that people who already had good metformin compliance lost an average of about 6 percent of their body weight and could maintain that decline for years."
Metformin is not a magic pill
While metformin may help with weight loss, it's not a magic pill and it's not a cure for obesity or obesity.
In one diabetes prevention study, 29% of people lost 5% or more of their body weight and only 8% lost about 10%. On average, this was about 5 pounds (a pound equals 450 grams).
That may be enough to start improving your health, but it's not enough to make a big impact if you're overweight: for example, metformin won't make a difference to someone who needs to lose 30 pounds or more, according to a report in WebMed.