The alienation of Bani Hilal from the country of Najd to Tunisia arouses the interests of researchers in folk traditions and biographies and is exposed to human aspects due to its artistic richness with characters and events that give popular literature a special color that represents Arab social and intellectual life.
Poetic alienation is characterized by the length of its verses - which exceed one million - from Arabic biographies such as the biography of King Saif bin Dhi Yazan, Antar bin Shaddad, Al-Zahir Baybars, Princess Dhul-Himma and Ali Al-Zaybak, all of which glorify heroism, courage, ideals and the ability to transcend reality towards new horizons.
beginningsThe Banu Hilal belong to Hilal bin Amer, an Arab tribe of Hawazen Qaysiyyah Madhariya Adnaniya who inhabited before their migration from the Arabian Peninsula to the Levant, then Upper Egypt and from there to North Africa next to their cousins from the Qaysi tribes, such as "Salim", "Hawazen" and "Amer", the country of the Hijaz and Najd, where the land is a dry desert shrouded in black basalt lava, where life is based on a few sprawling wells and some rain.
These tribes controlled the road to Medina, the reefs of Najd, and the roads leading to the Gulf, until the Jews of Medina and the merchants of Mecca preferred to ally with them almost throughout the pre-Islamic era.
Najd and Ajdbet were replaced for many periods, and these tribes were forced to move and leave in search of pasture, but the black volcanic plateaus of Najd remained the homeland and the fate from which they acquired their original characteristics, which marked these Najdis from Hilal, Salim and others with its violent Bedouin character, and their support for the Qarmatians expresses their tendency towards violence and rebellion.
alliance These tribes were known for their warrior nature, tribal conflicts, long migrations and alliances, and these Najdi tribes formed an important wing in the northern alliance Al-Adnani Al-Qaisi in their dispute with the southern Qahtani Arabs, and each tribe was famous for its days, knights and tribal heritage.
The Banu Hilal joined the Qaisi alliance of Salim, Amer and Hawazen in this conflict to fight the Yemeni Arabs of the south. These Najdi tribes did not only form alliances with which they had a common tribal history, but also formed a different and distinct tribal incubator, and they had a dialect that they understood in their daily lives that had no blogs, although they appeared in the readings of the Holy Qur'an along with al-Fusha, which formed a literary language.
Researchers noted that the Bedouins of Bani Salim were not standing on the stillness, but rather allow it in their speech, even if it was in the chest or belly of the sentence, and that the vocabulary they pronounce eloquent or descend from the root eloquent, and that the mixing between those tribes and the indigenous people led them to a shift in pronunciation to facilitate and circumstances necessitated by the suitability of life between dialects.
Hijrah of Qais TheQaisi alliance was famous in the days of the Arabs in the time of ignorance for its long wars with the Arabs of the south, in addition to their many disputes and wars among themselves, and they were pagans loyal to their gods such as the idols of Dhul-Khalsa, Khatham and Bajila.
When the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) resurrected Islam, some northern tribes strongly returned to him despite their kinship to him, and whoever entered Islam in the life of the Prophet reneged on his covenant after that and joined the apostasy movement that spread in the Arabian Peninsula, but they were later defeated and returned to Islam.
After the conquest of Egypt in 641 AH, the Umayyads, who also belonged to the Qaysi tribes, felt the predominance of the Yemeni Sabaean element over the Arab army and its soldiers who settled in Fustat, where most of the tribes that made up the army of conquest were Yemeni Qahtaniyah.
Metwally Kharaj of Egypt proposed to Caliph Hisham bin Abdul Malik to bring the tribes of Qaysiya to create a balance within the army, and in the year Hijri 109 began the migration of the Great Qais to Egypt and they continued to move to it with their allies and cousins.
Then came the era of the Fatimid Caliph Aziz Billah, who brought some Qaysiyyah towards Upper Egypt and the eastern enemy, and the wave of migration of Qaysians to Egypt during his reign was one of the strongest Arab migrations that took Diyar al-Sham and then settled in the eastern region through the road, which knew many migrations and was inhabited by the stomachs of them since the Umayyad era, but they soon provoked unrest and raided the villages of the Delta to loot, and soon the Caliph was fed up with the devastation they caused and expelled them to Upper Egypt.
Migration to North Africa
The Maghreb revolted against the Fatimid rule, and the king of Sanhaja al-Mu'izz ibn Badis deposed obedience to the Fatimids, turning into the Abbasid caliph, and at the same time there were tribes in Egypt Bani Hilal and Batn from Salim Khawlata from Hilal.
The Fatimid court minister Hassan bin Ali al-Yazouri artificially and took over the work of Africa, and pushed them to the war of Sanhaja, these two tribes defeated Ibn Badis and reached Tunisia and besieged Kairouan, and divided the countries of Africa took Salim desert Tripoli while Banu Hilal took Tunisia and west.
Ibn Khaldun recorded that major migration towards North Africa in a section entitled "The news about the entry of the Arabs from Bani Hilal and Salim Morocco" and said, "When Banu Hilal and Banu Salim went to Ifriqiya and Morocco since the first fifth hundred and practiced it for three hundred and fifty years, it was followed by it and its media returned to ruin all after it was between Sudan and the entire Rumi Sea Urbana attested by the effects of urbanization in it from monuments, building statues and evidence of villages and madras."
The birth of Bedouin epic poetry The Hilalian Westernization emerged from Najd to North Africa as a milestone in the poetry of the Bedouins
of Qaisi, and tells the story of the exit of a desert people in search of pasture, but it lasted a century or more, and left a popular literary heritage of epics, biographies, poems and legendary heroes.
The popular memory is still full of the names of the heroes of the Westernization (Abu Zayd Al-Hilali, Younis and Diab bin Ghanem), as well as the heroism of women who accompanied this alienation (Al-Jaziya Al-Sharifa, Aziza Al-Hilaliyah, Khadra Al-Sharifa, Abu Zayd's mother and his sister Shiha), in which women occupied a social position, and expressed through the folk tale their heroic presence.
The Westernization was associated with poems that seemed to harbor the birth of Bedouin folk poetry, and the Banu Hilal and Salim mixed with major Berber and Amazigh tribes such as Sanhaja, Kutama, Wata and Hawara, and some of the Qais tribes that traveled to Morocco merged and remained there, and some of them returned to the East and were known as the "Moroccan" Arabs who descended Libya and Egypt since the early eighteenth century, so they inhabited the western side of the Nile and the banks of the Sea of Joseph from Assiut to Fayoum almost a century before the French campaign.
What is left of Westernization?
In addition to their role in preaching Islam, the Hilalites associated the Maghreb with the Levant in language and population. The Arabs of Morocco before the Hilalites were a stable minority in the cities, and the Amazigh dominated the population, so the Hilalis came in their huge numbers and spread and Arabized the country.
The large number of Hilalis and their spread led to the predominance of their tongue over other tongues of the Arabs, so their dialect spread in the Arabian Peninsula, the Levant, Egypt and Morocco, and played a role in the emergence of dialects such as the Egyptian dialect.
The Hilal dialect represents the repository of Arab speech, a Bedouin dialect with a huge Arabic dictionary dating back centuries before Islam, which was not civilized and remained firmly established in its beginning.
If the march of Bani Hilal with the Ummah and the Islamic message began with the Mother of the Believers Zainab bint Khuzaima (Hilaliyah) and the Mother of the Believers Maymuna bint Al-Harith (Hilaliyah), may Allah be pleased with them, it did not end with the Lion of the Desert, Omar Al-Mukhtar (Al-Hilali), may Allah have mercy on him.