The Shaanxi Provincial Archaeological Society recently released a list of the six new archaeological discoveries in Shaanxi in 2022.

Luonan Yeyuan Ruins, Xunyi Xitou Ruins, Qin and Han Liyang City Ruins, Xi’an Sandian Han Dynasty Ancient Bridge Ruins, Sui and Tang Chang’an City Zhuque Street Five Bridge Ruins, Jingbian Qingpingbao Ruins were successfully selected, Jingyang Jiangliu Ruins, Qin Shihuang Three new archaeological discoveries, Pit No. 1 of the Terracotta Warriors and Horses of the Imperial Mausoleum, and the Xianyang Beicheng Cemetery were shortlisted for this selection.

Luonan Yeyuan Site: Tracks of Ancient Human Activities for Millions of Years

  Discovered in 2011, the Yeyuan site is located in the west of the Luonan Basin, on the second-level terrace between the Nanluo River and its southern tributary, the County River, and belongs to the wilderness type Paleolithic site.

From April 2021 to March 2022, archaeological excavations were carried out in the southeastern part of the hillock located near the water and sunny, with the thickest accumulation and the richest exposed relics, and a total of more than 12,000 stone artifacts were unearthed.

After research, the 36th layer containing ancient human cultural remains in the lower part of the Yeyuan site was formed in the late Early Pleistocene no later than 1.1 million years ago.

  For the first time, the archaeological excavation of the Yeyuan site completely revealed the stratigraphic deposits at the second-order terrace of the Luonan Basin, and obtained the stratigraphic profile with the largest depth and the most complete sequence in the basin. It is of great value to study the chronological sequence and study the relationship between the intensity of ancient human activities and environmental changes in different periods.

  Through this excavation, there is evidence of human activities in the Luonan Basin millions of years ago. It has become one of the few important areas in my country where there is information on human activities millions of years ago.

At the same time, Acheulian stone tool assemblages with clear stratigraphic relations and a large number of types and quantities were found again, which preliminarily proves that the simple stone core stone flake technology and the Acheulian technology are more likely to be stone tool technologies mastered by people in different periods, reflecting the mid-update It was an important event of population migration and cultural exchange in the late century.

Xunyi Xitou Ruins: Provides a key to the search for "Bin" and "Bin Master"

  The Xitou site is located in Zhanghong Town, Xunyi County, Xianyang City, Shaanxi Province. The remains of the Shang and Zhou Dynasties cover an area of ​​about 2 million square meters. It is one of the largest Shang and Zhou settlements discovered in the Jinghe River Basin so far.

City ruins, building foundations, copper smelting remains, large ditch cemetery found in archeology in 2022, and a series of discoveries such as pit-like grain storage relics in the Western Zhou Dynasty, large water storage pits, and pre-Zhou period settlements in excavations from 2018 to 2021 , which laid the foundation for comprehensively revealing the settlement layout, population composition and social organization of the Xitou site during the Shang and Zhou dynasties.

  The important archaeological discoveries at the Xitou site provide very precious archaeological materials for the study of the settlement layout, population composition, and social changes in the Shang and Zhou dynasties at the Xitou site, and are of great importance to the study of settlement evolution in the Jinghe River Basin and social changes in the Shang and Zhou dynasties. The significance also provides a key key for exploring the origin and development model of Zhou civilization, and searching for "Bin" and "Bin Master" recorded in literature.

Qin and Han Liyang City Sites: The earliest capital axis discovered and determined so far

  Liyang City in the Qin and Han Dynasties is located in Xinxing and Wutun Streets, Yanliang District, Xi'an City, Shaanxi Province.

According to literature records, the capital of Liyang was moved to Liyang in the second year of Emperor Xiangong of the Qin Dynasty, and moved to Xianyang as the capital of Qin Dynasty for 34 years in the 11th year of Duke Xiaogong. During this period, the Qin people carried out a series of profound social changes again.

At the end of Qin, Chu and Han, Liyang was first the capital of Sima Xin, king of Sai, and then the capital of Liu Bang, king of Han.

In the early Han Dynasty, Liu Bang first took Liyang as his capital, and Liyang was the first capital of the Han Dynasty.

  The clearing of No. 3 and No. 11 buildings in the No. 3 ancient city from 2021 to 2022 will reveal the main buildings in the core area of ​​Miyagi for the first time, which is of great value for in-depth research on the architecture of the Warring States Period, Qin and Han Dynasties.

Through the excavation, it is determined that there is a north-south axis running through the core building of the ancient city No. 3 through the north-south steps on the east side of the No. 3 building. , are the earliest and highest-ranked relics of the same kind discovered so far, and they all have important academic value.

Xi’an Sandian Ancient Bridge Site of Han Dynasty: The only ancient bridge of Han Dynasty discovered so far in the Chan River Basin

  Since September 2022, archaeologists have discovered 874 bridge piles during the excavation of the Han Dynasty ancient bridge site in Sandian, Xi'an. ——Southeast direction, direction 156 degrees.

This is the only Han Dynasty ancient bridge discovered so far in the Chan River Basin. It has a large east-west span, a wide north-south width, and dense bridge piles. .

  The ancient bridge of the Han Dynasty in the Three Halls of Xi'an is facing the Southern Tomb of the Empress Dowager Bo of the Western Han Dynasty and the Han Dynasty Emperor Ba's Mausoleum.

The bridge is located between Nanling, Baling and Han Chang'an City, which provides an important reference for the study of road traffic routes in the Han Dynasty.

According to the record in the literature "Nanling Bridge is broken, the clothes are out of order", it is speculated that it may be "Nanling Bridge", which provides an important clue for further searching for Emperor Wen's "Gucheng Temple", and is of great importance for the study of the Western Han Dynasty and the changes in the early mausoleum temple system significance.

Sui and Tang Dynasties Chang'an City Suzaku Street Juxtaposition of the Five Bridges Sites: The Highest Level of Capital Ritual System

  Zhuque Street in the Sui and Tang Dynasties is a north-south street connecting the Zhuque Gate of the imperial city and the Mingde Gate of the Waiguo City.

From May 2021 to December 2022, the Xi'an Institute of Cultural Relics Protection and Archeology carried out archaeological excavations at the construction site in the northwest corner of the Small Wild Goose Pagoda in Xi'an. There are more than 20 relics, and more than 350 pieces of various cultural relics have been unearthed.

  According to archaeological surveys, the middle bridge of the juxtaposed Ruins of the Five Bridges of Zhuque Street is located on the central axis of Zhuque Street in Chang'an City in the Sui and Tang Dynasties, opposite to the Zhongmen Road of Mingdemen Wumen Road from north to south.

The juxtaposed site of the Five Bridges on Zhuque Avenue is located more than 1,200 meters away from the Zhuque Gate of the imperial city. It echoes the Zhuque Gate and Mingde Gate. Significance.

  Regarding the width of Suzaku Street, it is recorded in the literature that it is "a hundred steps wide", which is equivalent to 150 meters today.

According to archaeological exploration data in the 1950s and 1960s, the width of Suzaku Street is 150 meters to 155 meters.

The five bridges excavated side by side, the central axis of the middle bridge is 63.5 meters away from the west bank of the ditch on the east side of Zhuque Street. Based on this, the actual width of Zhuque Street is estimated to be about 130 meters. The estimated data are roughly equivalent.

Jingbian Qingping Fort Ruins: Participated in the exchange and inheritance of Chinese civilization

  The site of Qingpingbao (built in the 11th year of Chenghua in the Ming Dynasty and abandoned in the reign of Kangxi) is located in Dongmengou Village, Yangqiaopan Town, Jingbian County, Shaanxi Province. It is about 600 meters long from north to south and 300 meters long from east to west. It is one of the Sixteen Battalion Forts, and it is also one of the places where Mingmen trades with Mongolia.

  Qingping Fort is the first large-scale scientific archaeological excavation of the ruins of the Great Wall of China. In the past three years, the ruins of the central building, south gate and urn city, Xianying Palace, dwellings and shops, and temples outside the fort have been revealed at the Qingping Fort site. A large number of remains have been unearthed Architectural components, porcelain fragments for daily use, and painted clay statues of gods.

Through the archaeological work of the Qingpingbao site, the subjective positioning of military control and commercial exchanges was clarified when the Great Wall was built, and the specific role played by the Great Wall during its use was also clarified.

The ruins of the Great Wall represented by Qingping Fort used to be a place where the ethnic groups and cultures on both sides of the Great Wall collided, exchanged and merged, participated in the integration and development of the Chinese nation, and participated in the exchange and inheritance of Chinese civilization.

  (Our reporter Li Jie and Zhang Zhehao) (Guangming Daily)