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Andalusia, the splendid spot that continued in the heat of Islamic civilization for eight successive centuries, and which is only mentioned on the tongues, is accompanied by feelings of longing and nostalgia, and perhaps it is a longing for that high-end civilization whose evidence still remains in Cordoba, Granada, Seville, Toledo and other of its lush metropolis, and in the heart of it Al-Hamra, the Generalife, the remains of al-Zahra, the Cordoba bridge and its mosque, the Seville towers, and other things left by the Andalusians.

However, this existence and that civilization that combined elegance, luxury and beauty befell it in its later days what we would not have imagined had it not been for its frequency in the books of Spanish and Islamic history alike.

Blood was spilled, body parts were cut, and Andalusians were systematically and brutally tortured in the name of the Cross and the Lord in what was called the Inquisition, which was supervised by priests and monks. In and around the epidermis south of Granada.

How did Andalusia and Granada reach this cruel fate?

And how did Fernando V and Elizabeth betray their covenants and covenants towards the Muslims of Andalusia?

What are the most important crimes they committed against Muslims?

And how did Muhammad bin Umayya appear and the Morskyans gathered around him?

What are the consequences of his revolution and its tragic end?

The last days of Andalusia!

The weakness of the authority of the Almohads in Andalusia followed the loss of many of its cities at the hands of the Spanish Christians. Cordoba, Seville, Zaragoza and others fell in the first half of the seventh century AH / thirteenth century AD, and in the meantime two men appeared who tried to unravel the Andalusian division and weakness, and to preserve what remained of the soil The Andalusian, the first was Muhammad bin Yusuf bin Hood, the leader of Zaragoza, to whom the regions of eastern Andalusia and its cities owed him, and the second was Muhammad bin Yusuf bin Al-Ahmar, whose authority was recognized by the regions of southern Andalusia “Little Andalusia”, that the death of Ibn Hood made Ibn al-Ahmar the most important leader, and leader The politicians of the eastern and southern regions of Andalusia, and on his hands, the Kingdom of Granada was established, the last spot to which the Muslims fled[1], and they took refuge in it, and they defended it for two and a half centuries until the last fall at the hands of the Spanish Christians.

The Kingdom of Granada lived for two centuries in continuous confrontations with the Christian forces in the north, which were a factor of pressure and continuous attack, and had it not been for the support of the Marinid state that was ruling Morocco at that time, the Andalusians would not have been able to survive, continue and stand firm, in addition to the Andalusians’ awareness of all their social classes, whether they were scholars or public or In the military, they became at the last point, the point of no return, and that weakness meant falling and death without mercy at the hands of the Spaniards, which prompted them to resist and persist in it, despite their weakness, internal revolutions and conspiracies to conquer the throne.

These internal revolutions between the sons and princes of Bani al-Ahmar led the kings of Castile and Aragon to take advantage of the circumstance and progress at the expense of the possessions of Granada, but rather worked to stoke strife and internal conflicts at the end of the ninth century AH. , especially in the fierce competition between Abu Abdullah al-Saghir and his uncle Muhammad bin Saad Abu Abdullah al-Zaghal, who was characterized by courage. This conflict ended with the division of Granada. The King of Aragon, Fernando, and Queen of Castile, Isabella, took advantage of this circumstance, and they set out with their armies towards Granada, which they besieged in a tight and tight siege. She gave her supplies and supplies for many months, until her family and her king, Abu Abdullah al-Saghir, were forced to surrender in Muharram in the year 897 AH / November 1491 AD according to a treaty between the two sides[2].

The extradition treaty included sixty-seven conditions, among which were securing the young and old in self, family and money, keeping people in their places, their homes and real estate, ensuring the establishment of their law and not being judged except by it, and that mosques and endowments remain as such, and Christians do not enter the homes of Muslims and do not force anyone, and that they are not assigned Muslims must only be a Muslim or Jew, release all Muslim prisoners, and not support Muslims by force, and other conditions, then King Abu Abdullah moved to the province of Andrash, located in the Al-Bishrat Mountains south of Granada, but he was forced to take refuge in Morocco in the following year of surrender After Fernando ordered him to leave, and settled there, even the historian Al-Maqri saw his descendants a century later in the streets of Fez suffering poverty and asking people[3]!

Treachery and deception!

Treachery and hypocrisy were the most prominent characteristics of King Fernando Al-Muzaffar, who had the opportunity to destroy the Islamic state in Andalusia. A number of major contemporary and later historians, including the Castilian historians themselves, have noted these qualities. Indeed, his contemporary, the political philosopher Machiavelli says in his right: “Fernando of Argonne invaded Granada.” At the beginning of his rule, and this project was the pillar of his authority, and he was able, with the money of the Church and the people, to extend his armies, and by this war lay the foundations of the military prowess that he distinguished after that, and he always used religion as a pretext to undertake greater projects, and he devoted himself with a cruelty that concealed piety to expel Muslims from his kingdom and purged it from them, and with such a pretext he invaded Ifriqiya, then landed in Italy, and then attacked France…”[4].

Hence, the Moriscos or the domesticated (Christian Muslims) during the reign of Fernando V for nearly twenty years, ranging between hope and despair, and languishing under the immersion of organized persecution, and this vulnerable people had begun to forcibly enter Christianity, whose rights were denied by Spain, and the Church that worked to convert it, Despite this, he was trying to accept his miserable fate with pride, and this remnant of defenseless Muslims remained a source of anxiety and hatred on the part of the Spaniards, so they worked with all their energy to exhaust him, humiliate him and chase him with various duties and debts[5].

(Social Media)

The two Catholic kings Elizabeth died in 1504 AD and Fernando V in 1516 AD, and they were buried in the Mosque of Cordoba, which was converted into a cathedral according to their will, and their grandson Charlekan succeeded them on the throne of Spain. To their previous era of the Inquisition, torture and restrictions on the Moriscos, Christianizing them, and marrying off their daughters from the Spanish Christians.

In the face of this systematic persecution and cruelty in treatment, the Moriscos did not find anything but to escape from this hell, despite their followers of Christianity, the policy of persecution and restriction continued, and they tried to emigrate from Andalusia in the fifth decade of the sixteenth century AD towards Morocco, Algeria or others, but a decision was issued In 1541 AD, it was forbidden for them to change their homes, and prevented them from going towards Valencia, which was their maritime departure towards Morocco and North Africa, without a royal permit in exchange for huge sums [6].

The Moorish Revolution..the last resort

Moriscos thought that the era of Charlekan (1516-1555 AD) was an era of persecution and injustice, but this thought was dispelled when the era of brutality and ugliness came at the hands of his son, Emperor Philip II (1555-1598 AD). 1566 AD a set of harsh and brutal laws, they were forcibly subjugated and forced to leave their identity, religion, language and even their clothes, not to bathe in public baths, prohibit the use of Arab names and titles, and force them to open their homes and search them on Fridays and holidays so that they would not gather secretly to celebrate and worship, and most customs were forbidden to them. And the Islamic and Arab traditions they were accustomed to at the time of Islam in Granada[7].

One of the contemporaries of these events, Francisco Núñez Molloy, expressed in his memoirs in 1566 AD the continuation of the persecution and abuse of the Morskys, saying: “Every day we see worse and more ill-treatment in everything, by all ways and means, whether by the civil justice authorities and their employees or by Clerics, and this is something that is noticed, and we do not need to know or inquire about it”[8].

The greatest persecution was in Granada, and the Moriscos, with the recent laws issued by Philip II in 1566 AD, which began to be applied relentlessly on the anniversary of the fall of Granada on the first of January of the following year 1576 AD, realized that they were on a date with a final break with their religion, heritage and history and their ancestors, especially since their attempts to mediate, friendly and pay money to alleviate the impact of this aggression did not succeed with blind Catholic fanaticism, and with the injustices and brutality of the Inquisition, which inflicted upon them forms of torture, captivity and murder that they had never seen before.

When the despair of the Morskys reached its climax;

They whispered about resistance and revolution, and defending themselves in the face of this agonizing abuse, or death before the last spark of dignity and pride was extinguished in their hearts and consciences, and before their last links with the glorious past were severed, and their souls were still burning with a remnant of the passion for struggle and self-defense, and they saw In the nearby mountainous areas, a haven for the revolution, and they hope to reach the resistance to cancel or mitigate this barbaric law[9].

The old Andalusian League concentrated its power in the Al-Bayazin neighborhood below Al-Hamra in Granada, and everyone gathered around one of their notables, whose name was Faraj bin Faraj, from the Bani Al-Sarraj family, the knights of the ancient Bani Al-Ahmar state, and they agreed to jump on the Spanish military garrison in the city to kill it on one of the Christian holidays in April of 1568 AD and the declaration of independence and the beginning of the revolution to liberate Andalusian lands and lift the grievances of the Moriscos.

Although their plan failed at that time, Faraj bin Faraj, with the aid of two hundred armed Moriscos, massacred a group of Spanish judges and investigators outside Granada in December of that year. The Spanish, but the senior Moriscos in Granada feared the consequences, so Faraj had to go out with his few forces towards the villages of Al-Bishrat in the south of the city. The following is the appointment of an important prince or king over these crowds who yearn to liberate Andalusia [10]!

Skin battles 

Al-Bishrat Mountains Revolution (social networking sites)

The choice of the revolutionaries and the great Moriscos fell on a young Albaician boy of money, prestige and position named Don Fernando de Cordoba and Valor.

This Castilian Christian name obscured a high Arab-Islamic ratio.

Indeed, Fernando de Valor belonged to the Umayyads, and was the descendant of the kings and caliphs under whom the Islamic state flourished in Andalusia for nearly three centuries.

The new prince knew the danger of the task he was assigned to, and he was ablaze with enthusiasm, daring and daring.

Immediately, he secretly left Granada to the mountains, and sought refuge with his followers, the family of Valor in the village of Beznar. Delegates and crowds rushed to him from all sides, and the Moriscos celebrated his coronation on the twenty-ninth of December 1568 in a simple and impressive celebration.[11]

In that celebration, Islamic flags with people were spread on the ground, and the prince prayed over them heading towards Mecca, and one of his followers kissed the land as a symbol of submission and obedience, and the prince swore to die for the sake of his religion and his nation, and he was named after an Arab king, Muhammad bin Umayyah, the owner of Andalusia and Granada, and his uncle chose the name Fernando Zgware (the little one), whose Muslim name is Ibn Jawhar, commander-in-chief of his army.

And he took his place in the depths of the mountains in impenetrable positions, and sent his messengers all over, calling on the Moors to renounce the obedience of the Christians and return to their old religion [12].

The Andalusian villages joined one after the other, and Ibn Umayyah and its leader, Faraj bin Faraj, saw in its people and its youth perseverance, strength and faith, while relying on the Morskyites of the Al-Bayazin neighborhood and the thousands formed in it was their greatest concern, those who relied on their interests and personal security for fear of risking any actions that harm their interests, or Join the revolution against the Spaniards with the greatest and greatest power, which was in the process of empire and exploration of the world and the Americas and the conquest of North Africa at the time.

Allegiance to bin Umayya Malik (social networking sites)

The Morskyan revolution turned to a guerrilla and hit-and-run strategy due to the small number of Morskyan fighters, which amounted to six thousand fighters in some accounts. Muhammad ibn Umayyah, whom they saw as less fanatic than his military commander, Faraj ibn Faraj, who eventually ordered ibn Umayya to remove him from the position of the military leadership of the Moriscos.

The spark of the revolution intensified, and it became a burning fire that spread to the eastern and southern aspects of the Al-Bishrat mountain range. It moved to the areas of Adra, Andrash, Dalayeh, Luchar, Marshana, Chelouania and other villages where the Moriscos eliminated the Spanish military garrisons and their presence in college. The revolution extended to the outskirts of the ancient Kingdom of Granada in the villages of the Valley of Granada. Mansoura, and moved to the city of Almeria and Wadi Ash, two of the most powerful and most important cities in the Islamic Kingdom of Granada, and Muhammad bin Umayya, the leader of these masses, was holed up in the rugged mountains between these areas.

As for the position of the Spaniards on this revolution, they adopted a strategy of confrontation relentlessly. The Spanish army was led by two senior Marquis, namely de Mondejer and Los Felice, and divided themselves with the aim of encircling the Moorish army between east and west. The areas of the Al-Bishrat Mountains, and Ibn Umayyah miraculously escaped and his forces dispersed, and the Spaniards were able to capture the relatives and wife of Ibn Umayyah, and the Christians almost arrested Ibn Umayyah and his “little” minister, had it not been for the presence of tenderness and hatred between the Marquisians, the two leaders of the army [14].

Ibn Umayyah took advantage of these grudges and inconsistency within the Spanish army and soon regrouped his ranks and re-attacked Almeria, and they met in a severe confrontation with the other Marquis of Los Felice, and dozens fell on both sides, and the Spanish prisoners did not have mercy on them, so they killed them, including children and women, and the Moriscos were exposed in the Albayazin neighborhood In Granada, a wave of arrests led to a tragic end, as they were all killed, which prompted the hidden and frightened Moriscos to go out and support the revolutionaries of the skin, and the attacks on the Spanish garrisons continued in the plains, mountains and villages scattered in the south and east of Granada, with success led by Muhammad bin Umayya and his junior minister. 15th].

Muhammad bin Abi Umayya (networking sites)

The Andalusian revolution expanded to the extent that King Philip II realized that the leaders of the local armies were no longer able to confront, so he issued his decision appointing his brother de Juan de Astoria to lead the army and leader of the territory of Granada to unite efforts, and confront this revolution decisively.

the end!

But in the meantime, the tragic incident that precipitated the defeat of the Great Morisco revolution occurred, a difference and feud occurred within the Morsican camp, and the resentment against Prince Muhammad the Umayyad was most severe, as the Castilian historical novels described him as the prince who combined mercy and leniency on his followers, with strength and strictness against the violators. from his army, and describes that the cause of his death was a beautiful maid who took her from his minister by force, so he revolted against him, then some of his army officers drove him to death, and they killed him by guilt[16]. By.

Muhammad bin Umayya was killed in the last quarter of 1569 AD, and his victories were at the height of his glory, and hopes were raised in the hearts for the restoration of Granada itself, and the leadership of the revolution rose in his place, one of the great Morskyan knights, nicknamed Ibn Abbou “Abu” or Moulay Abdullah as he was nicknamed later, and despite some The successes achieved by Ibn Abbou, Juan de Astoria decided to strike the heart of the Moorish force in the Gilera region, and from December 1569 to April of the following year 1570 AD, the Spaniards returned to control the villages and castles, and the Moriscos turned into small military teams led by Ibn Abbou and Faraj Ibn Faraj, al-Haqbi and others to the defense, but it was a futile defense in front of the military and artillery advance of the forces of the Spanish army, so a section led by al-Habaqi decided to surrender in exchange for safety as the Spaniards promised them, and another section of the Morskyan forces decided to flee towards North Africa and disperse in the countries for fear of the treachery of the Spanish Christians, who They got used to it, in May 1570 AD [17].

King Philip II and his senior statesmen and priests saw that the survival of the Moriscos, their gathering and their density in the regions of southern Andalusia is always a danger, and although Granada itself did not participate in the revolution, all the leaders were leaders who were actively involved with the interests of the Spanish administration and economy, and many Some of them were from the Albayazin district in Granada.

For these reasons, and by October 28 of that year 1570 AD, Philip II decided to expel all the Moriscos from the Kingdom of Granada towards the cities of the north and west. The displacement was a process of torture in itself. Diseases spread among the Moriscos, and many of them died on the way. With these measures, the last Morisco revolution, Muhammad ibn Umayyah, was eliminated[18], and forty years did not pass since these events, but the final expulsion decision was implemented. In 1609 AD, hundreds of thousands of Moriscos left without returning towards the countries of North Africa and the Ottoman Empire, to end the Morisco story forever!