Author: reporter Zhou Shixiang Yan Weiqi

  "Guangming Daily" (July 06, 2022 Edition 08)

  "It was the special sailing courses in high school that inspired my interest in sailing." Four years ago, Gao Ting, who graduated from Beicai Senior High School Affiliated to Shanghai Maritime University, was admitted to her favorite Shanghai Maritime University to study professional sailing. Technology, and now, after graduating from a bachelor's degree, she is about to join a state-owned enterprise to engage in ship safety management, dreaming of a blue land.

  More and more characteristic courses have broken the pattern of "one thousand schools" in high schools, and have become a new landscape for the reform and development of ordinary high school education in recent years.

Compulsory education on the top and higher education on the bottom. General high school education plays a key role in the national education system. How has the reform and development been in recent years?

How are school conditions, education methods, and evaluation systems different from ten years ago?

The press conference held by the Ministry of Education on July 5 introduced the relevant situation.

  The shortcomings are gradually filled up, and the conditions for running schools are continuously improved

  Integrate classroom and library functions, integrate information technology, and integrate rich curriculum resources. There are not only teaching spaces for teachers and students to interact and discuss, but also learning spaces for students to study independently and communicate independently; there are both online learning spaces and offline learning environments; There is not only space for receptive learning, but also experimental conditions for obtaining direct experience... In Shanghai Shixi Middle School, the creation of "Thinking Square" and "Mansi Lab" allows learning to break through the traditional boundaries of time and space.

  "Whether it is learning content or theme, learning location or time, learning method or learning partner, students can choose independently, which provides more possibilities for students' in-depth learning and thinking cultivation." The person in charge of the school said.

  Lv Yugang, director of the Department of Basic Education of the Ministry of Education, said that over the past ten years, the country has continuously implemented ordinary high school renovation plans and ordinary high school construction projects in counties with weak educational foundations. The central government has invested a total of 71.186 billion yuan, driving local governments at all levels to further increase investment in school construction. , significantly improved the school conditions.

In the past ten years, the resources of school buildings have expanded rapidly, and a total of 4,570 ordinary high schools have been newly built, renovated or expanded nationwide; the proportion of large classes has dropped significantly, and the proportion of large classes of 56 or more has dropped from 47.76% in 2012 to 4.81% in 2021; teaching equipment conditions have been significantly improved The proportion of equipment for sports equipment, music and art equipment, and scientific experimental equipment all exceeds 95%; the level of informatization is further improved. In 2021, the networking rate of ordinary high school schools nationwide will reach 100%, and multimedia classrooms will account for 76% of the total number of classrooms.

  Synchronized with the improvement of hardware is the improvement of the quality of teachers.

Lu Yugang said that in the past ten years, the total number of full-time teachers in ordinary high schools has increased significantly, from 1.595 million to 2.0283 million, an increase of 27.17%, and the student-teacher ratio has been optimized from 15.47:1 in 2012 to the current 12.84:1, effectively easing the comprehensive college entrance examination. The teacher shortage problem faced by the reform and implementation of elective courses.

The structure of teachers' educational qualifications has been continuously optimized. The national high school full-time teachers' qualification rate has increased from 96.44% to 98.82%, and the proportion of teachers with master's degrees or above has increased from 5% to 12.4%, an increase of nearly 1.5 times.

  "Judging from the reality of urban and rural education development, the weak links and difficulties lie in county high schools. It is necessary to strengthen the overall management of enrollment, and resolutely curb the problem of some schools competing for students across regions, especially across cities and counties; improve the teacher replenishment mechanism, and strictly prohibit Urban schools in developed areas go to county high schools in weak areas to scout for outstanding principals and teachers; one school, one case, one school, one policy to formulate an implementation plan for the standardization construction of local counties. Starting this fall, the Ministry of Education will start the county-level trusteeship assistance for subordinate colleges and universities At the same time, we will carry out group-style counterpart assistance for educational talents in key counties of national rural revitalization," said Lv Yugang.

  Reform in the way of educating people, and solid progress in the development of characteristics

  In the industrial design workshop, use the technical language to create works, and lay the technical specifications and practical ability of outstanding engineers; in the project laboratory "use experimental hypotheses and use data to express conclusions", explore and research like scientific researchers; in "high-end legal affairs" " In the courses of Oral History” and “Classic Drama”, learning is organized in a professional manner of humanities and occupations; the simulated city environment has created “Kuanyuanshe Street”, and built simulated learning spaces such as post offices, banks, integrity supermarkets, and food inspection and quarantine centers for students. Students participate in campus public affairs as social roles, serve others, and manage themselves... In Xishan Senior High School in Jiangsu Province, the high school life of "single question-checking" has long been a thing of the past, and it has been replaced by "teaching-learning-evaluation integration". Disciplinary typical learning styles that promote effective learning.

  "Design and Technology+" of Changzheng Middle School, "Legal Education" of Taopu Middle School, "Environmental Literacy" of Caoyang Middle School, "Multilingual Education" of Ganquan Foreign Language Middle School, "Science and Technology Features" of Tongji Second Affiliated Middle School, "Music Education" of Shangyin Middle School... …The colorful and characteristic curriculum system is making the high school campuses in Putuo District, Shanghai “beautiful”.

It is reported that the district stimulates the vitality of regional high schools to create their own characteristics by incubating high schools with characteristic projects, and guides regional high schools to carry out exploration and practice in terms of school-running mode, management system, curriculum construction, teaching methods and team building, and jointly form regional characteristic projects. Group, and constantly meet the individual development needs and diverse choices of students.

  Lu Yugang said that in the past ten years, the way of educating people in ordinary high schools has undergone profound changes, integrating morality and cultivating people into all aspects of ideological and moral education, cultural knowledge education, and social practice education, actively improving classroom teaching methods, and orderly implementing elective courses. Student development guidance, strengthening physical education, aesthetic education and labor education, focusing on the cultivation of innovative spirit and innovative ability, focusing on improving students' comprehensive quality, and promoting students' comprehensive and individual development.

  "In the past ten years, the development of ordinary high schools with diverse characteristics has been solidly promoted, and the construction of curriculum systems has been continuously strengthened in various regions. By enriching school elective courses and cultivating school's advantageous disciplines, efforts have been made to create school-running characteristics, and promote schools' shift from hierarchical development to classified development, so as to better meet the needs of Diversified learning needs of students. Beijing, Shanghai, Liaoning, Shandong, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Fujian and other places focus on strengthening the construction of school characteristics, and actively explore the formation of science and technology high schools, humanities high schools, foreign language high schools, sports high schools, art high schools and comprehensive high schools. Diversified and distinctive school-running patterns." Lv Yugang said.

  Standardize selection and evaluation to form a benign educational ecology

  "Students can't pass today's college entrance examination without scores, but I'm afraid they won't be able to win the big exams in the future with only scores; schools have no college entrance examination competitiveness without enrollment rates, but education only focuses on enrollment rates, and the country may not have core competitiveness." Last year In the National Two Sessions, the words of Tang Jiangpeng, the principal of Xishan Senior High School, have caused heated discussions, and also pointed out the necessity of promoting the diversification of ordinary high schools and the simultaneous "follow-up" of the evaluation reform of middle and high-level admissions.

  Lu Yugang said that in the past ten years, the reform of the senior high school entrance examination has been carried out in an orderly manner. The implementation of the junior high school academic proficiency examination has combined the graduation examination and the entrance examination to reduce the number of examinations; standardized the subjects and score settings of the entrance examination and basically formed a system based on junior high schools. The results of the academic proficiency test, combined with the comprehensive quality evaluation, the enrollment and admission model, while focusing on the examination of students' academic performance, incorporates students' ideological morality, physical health, artistic accomplishment and labor practice into the comprehensive quality evaluation, and guides compulsory education schools to carry out in-depth quality education. To promote the all-round development and healthy growth of students.

  "Over the past ten years, the enrollment order has been constantly standardized. All localities have conscientiously implemented the synchronous enrollment policy of territorial enrollment and citizen-run schools, and reasonably allocated more than 50% of the enrollment quota of high-quality ordinary high schools to junior high schools in the region. The network platform strengthens the management of enrollment plans and the admission process, and strictly enforces the discipline of admissions work. A standardized, orderly, and powerfully supervised admissions mechanism has been basically formed, which effectively curbs illegal cross-regional recruitment and provides services for maintaining normal admissions order and creating a good educational ecology. There is a strong institutional guarantee." Lu Yugang said.

  "New college entrance examination, new evaluation" is driving high school students to be motivated and develop in an all-round way.

It is reported that Shanghai has built a comprehensive quality evaluation system covering the integration of morality, intelligence, physical fitness, beauty, labor, and five education, and built a comprehensive evaluation information management system. The comprehensive quality evaluation is a necessary condition for high school graduation and an important reference for college admissions.

"We have clearly incorporated social practice into the comprehensive quality evaluation and high school curriculum system, stipulated that social practice for high school students should not be less than 60 hours, and established a multi-departmental 'joint meeting for off-campus activities' system, with a total of 874,000 at the city and district levels Social practice position; strengthen students' research-based learning experience, and basically realize 'everyone has a subject'. The city has developed an adaptive learning platform for research-based learning and a third-party certification platform. More than 80% of students conduct subject research through the platform and complete the subject. Expert certification." said Yang Zhenfeng, deputy director of the Shanghai Municipal Education Commission.

  What kind of evaluation there is, there is what kind of school-running orientation, and the "baton" of school-running evaluation is also quietly changing.

Zhang Zhiyong, executive dean of the China Education Policy Research Institute of Beijing Normal University, said that the "Guidelines for the Evaluation of School-running Quality in Ordinary High Schools" proposes a complete school-running quality evaluation system, including five aspects: school-running direction, curriculum teaching, teacher development, school management, and student development. There are 18 key indicators and 48 key points in the examination.

  Zhang Zhiyong said that under the guidance of a series of top-level systems, my country's general high school education has entered a "golden period" of simultaneous implementation and coordinated promotion of the new college entrance examination, new curriculum, new teaching material reform and quality evaluation reform.

Curriculum standards replace the examination syllabus and lead the teaching of senior high schools in an all-round way; the academic proficiency test and the subject selection system of the college entrance examination are playing an increasingly important role in promoting the comprehensive and individual development of students; the teaching of "selecting courses and going to classes" promotes the profound development of the senior high school teaching system change.

  "At present, with the deepening of the curriculum reform of ordinary high schools and the comprehensive reform of the college entrance examination, there is an urgent need to improve and improve the quality evaluation of ordinary high schools. It is necessary to form a joint force of reform through systematic curriculum teaching and examination evaluation reform, and guide schools in various regions to establish A correct view of political achievements and a scientific view of education, and deepen the reform of education methods; it is necessary to effectively reverse the tendency to evaluate the quality of running a school based solely on test scores and enrollment rates; to change the phenomenon of focusing on knowledge instillation and ignoring practical ability training, it is also necessary to speed up Build a comprehensive education system and promote the high-quality development of ordinary high schools." Zhang Zhiyong said.