Our reporter Ni Yuanjin

  Ten years ago, Zou Yi, who is enthusiastic about environmental protection, photographed the Beijing sky at a fixed point every day. At that time, the gray tones took up most of the frame.

In the autumn and winter of one year, Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei and many surrounding provinces have been warned of heavy air pollution in orange and red, and the PM2.5 concentration even climbed to 700 to 1000 micrograms per cubic meter...

  Many citizens still remember the situation of the year: PM2.5 "exploded the watch" on the Moments, air purifiers, PM2.5 masks, etc. and anti-haze products are becoming more and more in short supply.

  At the same time that air pollution tortured Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei, the "battle to defend the breath" also started.

Looking back at the "win-win" road of economy and ecology in the past ten years, it is full of difficulties.

Continuous governance has achieved remarkable results, but there are still hard bones behind

  In September 2013, the State Council issued ten measures to prevent and control air pollution.

Local regulations and measures have been promulgated successively in various places to exert efforts to control air pollution.

  In February 2014, with the coordinated development of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei rising to a major national strategy and the signing of relevant agreements between the three places, in the field of atmospheric governance, the three places practiced "responsibility sharing, information sharing, negotiation and coordination, and joint prevention and control". There are many practices in the fields of coal combustion control, industrial emission reduction, motor vehicle oil upgrade, shutdown of scattered and polluting enterprises, law enforcement linkage, standard unification, forecast and early warning consultation and other fields.

  In the following years, at the national level, new environmental protection laws and air laws were successively promulgated and implemented, and the systems of environmental protection police, disclosure of pollution information, daily fines, and the connection of executions showed sharp swords.

Carry out outgoing audit of natural resources for leading cadres, establish a life-long accountability system for ecological and environmental damage, increase the assessment weight of indicators such as resource consumption, environmental damage, and overcapacity, and promote the transformation of pollution control from "nodding and doing" to "real attention". Do it."

  In addition, the energy saving, emission rights, carbon emission and other trading systems, as well as the third-party governance of environmental pollution, from the initial establishment to the increasingly perfect, leveraged the lever of normalized emission reduction, and also cultivated a market-oriented mechanism for ecological and environmental protection.

  Since 2013, in the face of the rapid economic and social development and the pressure of environmental governance brought about by the substantial growth of economy, population, energy consumption and motor vehicles, Beijing has implemented clean air for five years in response to prominent problems such as coal combustion, motor vehicles, industry and dust. The action plan and the three-year action plan for the defense of the blue sky, through a series of unconventional measures such as "reducing coal combustion, controlling vehicles and reducing oil, pollution control and emission reduction, and clean dust reduction", have achieved a substantial reduction in pollutant emissions, economic benefits, Environmental benefits "win-win" and sustainable development.

  Taking coal consumption as an example, according to Xie Jinkai, deputy director of the Atmospheric Environment Department of the Beijing Municipal Bureau of Ecology and Environment, from 21.796 million tons in 2012 to less than 1.5 million tons in 2021, high-quality energy accounts for 98.5%.

  The heavy industrial structure, the coal-biased energy structure, and the highway transportation structure are the fundamental causes of air pollution in Hebei Province.

  In recent years, Hebei has gradually developed from a "cleaning" type of governance based on terminal management and emergency emission reduction in the past to a "hard-boiled" type of tackling the root cause of backward production capacity.

For example, the scope of capacity reduction required by the state has been increased from 2 industries of steel and coal to 6 industries including steel, coal, coking, cement, plate glass, thermal power, etc., and the “relocation” of enterprises in the main urban areas of the city will be implemented. Around Beijing and Tianjin, push forward the withdrawal of steel production capacity in Baoding, Langfang, Zhangjiakou and Qinhuangdao.

  Relying on the overall layout of "two cities and two ports", Tianjin will simultaneously realize industrial transformation and upgrading in the process of enterprise relocation and adjustment, develop emerging industries such as artificial intelligence, biomedicine, new energy and new materials, speed up the optimization and adjustment of the steel industry structure, and start the implementation of Rongcheng. Ultra-low emission transformation of iron and steel, Tiangang and special steel.

  After nearly ten years of continuous management, the air quality in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei and other parts of the country has improved significantly.

  In 2021, the PM2.5 concentration in Beijing will be 33 micrograms/m3, and the air quality will reach the national secondary standard for the first time; In the quarter, the average concentration of PM2.5 in Hebei Province was 52 micrograms per cubic meter, a year-on-year decrease of 11.9%, and all cities dropped out of the "last ten" ranks of national key cities in terms of air quality.

  Behind the remarkable achievements, challenges remain.

  "The internal factor that affects air quality is emissions, and the external factor is meteorology." He Kebin, academician of the Chinese Academy of Engineering and professor of the School of Environment, Tsinghua University, said that according to the current total emission and emission intensity, especially the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, it is still in a "weather-sensitive type". , our future goal is to achieve "weather decoupling".

  "Although Beijing's air quality will fully meet the standard for the first time in 2021, heavy PM2.5 pollution in autumn and winter still occurs from time to time, and ozone pollution is prominent in summer, and there is a risk of short-term fluctuations in air quality," Xie Jinkai said.

  In He Kebin's view, there are still hard bones behind, especially nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds, which are the precursors of PM2.5 and ozone pollution. These two substances, according to the emission intensity and total emission per square kilometer, Beijing-Tianjin The Hebei region is still the highest in the country.

Refinement of haze control to avoid one-size-fits-all emission reduction

  The consensus of experts is that, especially for Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, several major pollution sources such as coal burning, motor vehicles, industrial emissions, and dust are obvious. Different pollution sources not only cause pollution superposition, but far exceed the environmental carrying capacity. The complexity of China's haze control needs to be more than European and American countries.

  He Hong, academician of the Chinese Academy of Engineering and chief scientist of the "Atmospheric Haze Cause and Control" project of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, said in an interview after the release of the "Ten Atmospheres" that China's smog is a complex type of pollution, which is different from London in the 20th century (mainly soot type) , Los Angeles (motor vehicle is the primary cause) is a relatively single source of pollution, and beyond the scope of a single city, it has become a large area of ​​regional pollution.

  As a result, the governance of the atmosphere cannot rely solely on campaign-style assaults.

In the refined battle of air pollution prevention and control, technology has always been the mainstay.

  Jing Kuan, director of the Automatic Monitoring Office of the Beijing Ecological Environment Monitoring Center, experienced firsthand that since the systematic monitoring of PM2.5 in 2013, Beijing's monitoring capabilities have achieved a process of "from scratch", "from existence to detail", and from fine to fine.

  Jing Kuan said that in the past, in Beijing, there was only one air quality monitoring station every 460 square kilometers. One monitoring site covers more than 330 streets and towns. The Internet of Things, big data, artificial intelligence and other technological means support the daily operation and maintenance, quality assurance and quality control and data analysis of the entire monitoring network.

  In the past ten years, Jingkuan has not only realized the real-time monitoring of PM2.5 concentration, but also carried out real-time online monitoring of PM2.5 components and analysis of PM2.5 sources, to provide daily emission reduction and joint prevention and control of heavy pollution in the region. Provide scientific evidence.

  With the in-depth development of technology, in recent years, through precise monitoring data, it is possible to know which areas have exceeded the emission standard. Once the warning line is exceeded, the relevant departments can promptly stop the polluting behavior of the responsible subject and avoid a one-size-fits-all emission reduction.

  In the vast air pollution, whether the various chemical components are emitted by enterprises or motor vehicles, from what industry, accumulated in the past or generated on the same day... "label" the pollutants, and then rely on scientific and technological support such as "traceability and tracing", etc. And then to achieve targeted control, this is not a fantasy.

  As the director of the State Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Boundary Layer Physics and Atmospheric Chemistry, Wang Zifa showed reporters the "two-way nested multi-scale air quality model" (NAQMPS) developed by Chinese researchers, which can be used to explore the generation, transportation and distribution of atmospheric pollutants. The law of sedimentation, and then when the meteorological conditions are not conducive to the dilution and diffusion of pollutants, the "spot brake" control of the emission source is carried out in advance.

  He Kebin said that, specifically, the scientific and technological capabilities of pollution source identification and source analysis are to obtain information on pollutants in the sky. Researchers use model simulation and other means on the ground to study the characteristics of these chemical components, where and what industry they come from. , carry out source identification and source analysis; the scientific and technological capability of forecasting and early warning is to judge whether heavy pollution will come in the sky through meteorological conditions, how much it will affect the ground, and how provinces, industries and the public should respond.

  In addition, He Kebin also mentioned the scientific and technological capabilities of the "plan deduction" supplemented in recent years, that is, if certain measures are taken in the next 1, 3 or 5 years, and the deduction according to normal meteorological conditions, can the expectations be achieved? emission reduction effect.

  "This capability was not available in many cities and regions in the early years. At that time, it was to set goals, make plans, and then do it first. As for whether the completion of these plans can achieve emission reduction goals, the relevant analysis capabilities were lacking. Yes, in recent years, I finally made up for this lesson." He Kebin said.

Beijing faces deep and wide-ranging challenges

  Resolutely fighting the tough battle of pollution prevention and control is a major decision made by the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China.

Industry insiders believe that the tough battle of pollution prevention and control has changed from "resolutely fought well" during the "13th Five-Year Plan" period to "deeply fought well" during the "14th Five-Year Plan" period, which means that the pollution prevention and control battle involves deeper contradictions and problems and wider fields. , the requirements are also higher.

  In November last year, the "Opinions of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the State Council on Deepening the Battle of Pollution Prevention and Control" (hereinafter referred to as the "Opinions") was released, highlighting the key strategic direction of carbon reduction.

In addition to defending the blue sky, clear water, and pure land, it also strengthens governance in wider areas such as climate change, biodiversity, and new pollutants.

  The Beijing Municipal Party Committee and Municipal Government recently issued the "Implementation Opinions on Deepening the Battle of Beijing's Pollution Prevention and Control" (hereinafter referred to as the "Implementation Opinions"), which is a response and implementation of the "Opinions".

The "Implementation Opinions" also focus on biodiversity protection, strengthen economic policies, scientific and technological innovation, and legal protection, and are committed to transforming management measures into institutional mechanisms to improve the modernization level of ecological and environmental governance.

  Yu Jianhua, deputy director of the Beijing Municipal Bureau of Ecology and Environment, said that as a programmatic document for Beijing's ecological and environmental protection work for a period of time in the future, the "Implementation Opinions" have formed the elimination of heavy pollution weather, the prevention and control of ozone pollution, the control of diesel trucks, the control of agricultural and rural pollution, the 22 specific measures were proposed for the iconic battles such as the elimination of five types of water bodies.

  During the "14th Five-Year Plan" period, Beijing actively built a carbon market, carried out work to deal with climate change, and undertook the task of establishing the National Voluntary Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Trading Center (CCER) to settle in Beijing; continued to carry out biodiversity surveys, strictly monitor ecological space, and combat Illegal hunting of wild animals and protection of migratory birds and resting places.