It is necessary to adhere to the principle of public welfare of education, focus on building a high-quality and balanced basic public education service system, build a high-quality education system, and do a good job in education that the people are satisfied with.
——On March 6, 2021, General Secretary Xi Jinping responded to hot issues in the field of education at the joint meeting of the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference on the medical and health sectors and the education sector
On July 24, 2021, the General Office of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the General Office of the State Council issued the "Opinions on Further Reducing the Burden of Students' Homework and Off-campus Training in Compulsory Education", an unprecedented "double reduction" reform was launched.
General Secretary Xi Jinping emphasized at the National Education Conference to insist on giving priority to the development of education as an important first move to promote the development of various undertakings of the party and the country.
In this game of chess, basic education is undoubtedly an extremely important part.
In 2016, General Secretary Xi Jinping emphasized that basic education plays a fundamental and leading role in the national education system during his inspection at the Bayi School in Beijing. Make our country's basic education better and better.
The "double reduction", which aims to eradicate many chronic diseases in basic education, has far-reaching significance for Chinese education as a whole.
During the National People's Congress last year, Tang Jiangpeng, a member of the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference and the principal of Xishan Senior High School in Jiangsu Province, said in an interview with a reporter from China Youth Daily and China Youth Daily that the school once tested pull-ups for high school students, but none of the 132 boys could pull up. go up.
Many experts realize the seriousness of the problem.
Gu Mingyuan, a senior professor at Beijing Normal University, said that at present, the most prominent problem of compulsory education is that the burden of primary and secondary school students is too heavy.
First of all, it affects the physical health and ideological morality of students.
Students are engrossed in homework all day, lack of sleep, lack of exercise, and their physical strength declines.
There are many myopia among students now, and many adult diseases, such as high blood pressure and diabetes, are juvenile.
In fact, our country has always attached great importance to the problem of reducing the burden of primary and secondary school students, especially in the past ten years, a number of policies have been introduced. behavior is clearly defined.
Since 2018, off-campus education and training has become the key target of burden reduction work. The Ministry of Education and other nine departments have issued the "Notice on Measures for Burden Reduction for Primary and Middle School Students", which stipulates that training that exceeds the standard is strictly prohibited, and that training is strictly prohibited from decoupling from further studies.
"Education, including training and education, has always been a lofty public welfare undertaking. Naturally, it should be based on the fundamental purpose of cultivating morality and educating people." said Dong Shengzu, a researcher at the Institute of Private Education of the Shanghai Academy of Education Sciences.
However, under the influence of the "theater effect" and "educational utilitarianism", the burdens that students have reduced in school have been doubled outside the school.
Coupled with the influx of capital, off-campus training has expanded rapidly. A large number of off-campus training institutions in primary and secondary schools, especially the large number of unqualified training institutions, deviate from the purpose of running schools for public welfare, cater to some unreasonable social needs, and ignore them. The laws of education and the characteristics of students' physical and mental development are oriented towards taking the test and aiming to improve the score, adopting methods such as pre-emptive learning, super-syllabus, repeated practice, etc., and excessively carry out further studies and examinations for students in school, especially those in the compulsory education period. Knowledge training activities.
Zhang Zhiyong, executive director of the China Education Policy Research Institute of Beijing Normal University, once gave an example of a fifth-grade math teacher who asked fourth-grade students before the summer vacation if they had not studied fifth-grade math in the last semester, please raise your hand. As a result, only 3 students raised their hands. Asking those who have studied mathematics in the next semester of the fifth grade, please raise their hands, and half of the students raised their hands.
"This has seriously interfered with the normal education and teaching order of the school and destroyed the good education ecology." Dong Shengzu said.
Education has become a "product", and business pursuits are of course "benefits". The "China Education Service Industry Development Report 2020" shows that the scale of my country's basic education off-campus training market has reached 518.4 billion yuan.
Off-campus training institutions continue to create anxiety among parents, and at the same time use these anxiety to continue to "kidnap" parents, and even create an education system outside the national education system.
Reform is imminent!
On May 21, 2021, General Secretary Xi Jinping presided over the 19th meeting of the Central Committee for Comprehensively Deepening Reform. He emphasized that compulsory education is the top priority of national education. The fundamental task is to give full play to the main function of schools in teaching and educating people, and strengthen the standardized management of online and offline off-campus training institutions.
That is, the meeting reviewed and approved the "Opinions on Further Reducing the Burden of Students' Homework and Off-campus Training in Compulsory Education".
The goal is very clear, that is, to implement the fundamental task of building morality and cultivating people, focusing on building a high-quality basic education system, strengthening the main position of school education, deepening the governance of off-campus training institutions, resolutely preventing behaviors that infringe on the interests of the masses, building a good education ecology, and effectively relieve parents. Anxiety, promote students' all-round development and healthy growth.
The path is very clear, which is to reduce the burden of students' homework in class, reduce the burden of students' off-campus training, and improve the quality of school education and teaching.
The roadmap of the timetable is clear: “Effective reduction within 1 year and significant results within 3 years” for students’ heavy homework burden and off-campus training burden, family education expenditure and the corresponding energy burden of parents.
On June 15, 2021, the Ministry of Education's Off-Campus Education and Training Supervision Department was officially established, proposing that the "double reduction" work should be promoted in the spirit of "pinning the nails" to be effective.
At the end of August 2021, Huai Jinpeng, Secretary of the Party Leadership Group and Minister of the Ministry of Education, just took office, and listened to a report on the "double reduction" work, and then went to Guangzhou to conduct a special investigation.
He emphasized that the "double reduction" is related to the vital interests of the people, and it is necessary to actively explore an effective mechanism for the "double reduction" work, and to "see the move" to ensure the effective advancement of education reform and development.
After that, the Ministry of Education listed "double reduction" as the "No. 1 Project" for education supervision work in 2021.
"Double reduction", entering the stage of heavy punching.
According to the relevant person in charge of the Department of Off-campus Education and Training Supervision of the Ministry of Education, the Ministry of Education led 20 departments to form a special coordination mechanism for the "double reduction" work. "Policy Institutional System.
The Ministry of Education has also launched a legislative research on off-campus training, which is being accelerated; the list of 36 competitions has been announced, in an effort to alleviate the training fever brought about by the competition and reduce the excessive learning burden caused by the competition.
In addition, the Ministry of Education has also issued off-campus training materials and management measures for practitioners, clarified a series of normative requirements, emphasized the comprehensive control of training content, and delineated "red lines" for practitioners' prohibitions and behaviors.
The governance of "Thunderstorm" is to let education first return to the industry of conscience.
Just as General Secretary Xi Jinping said during the National People's Congress in 2021 when he visited the members of the medical and health sector and the education sector who participated in the CPPCC meeting, adhere to the principle of education for the public good.
According to authoritative data from the Ministry of Education, up to now, 124,000 offline off-campus training institutions have been reduced by 93.21%, and 263 online off-campus training institutions have been reduced by 87.07%.
Disciplinary training institutions have achieved a 100% completion rate of "transition from business to non-operating" and "revision and review", the government-guided price management has been fully implemented, all pre-paid fees have been included in the supervision, and training advertisements have basically disappeared.
At the same time, capital has largely withdrawn from the training market, and all listed institutions have divested their subject training business. The total market value has dropped from 947.7 billion in March 2021 to 112.8 billion in December 2021.
The barbaric growth of off-campus training in primary and secondary schools has been effectively curbed.
Some people gave this evaluation: the implementation of the "double reduction" policy has ended the intensifying competition for extra-curricular supplementary courses.
Tackling the fort
Tackling the fort
The off-campus environment of "barbaric" training has been managed, so what about on-campus?
On August 30, 2021, when the first new semester after the "double reduction" was about to start, the Ministry of Education held a press conference. Lv Yugang, director of the Department of Basic Education of the Ministry of Education, proposed that the implementation of the central government's "double reduction" work deployment should be taken as a Major political tasks, focus on giving full play to the main position of school education, actively promote the high-quality development of basic education, fully stimulate the enthusiasm and creativity of teachers in teaching and educating people, and make great efforts to strengthen and improve school education with a deep, detailed, strict and practical style. Improve the school education quality service system, and effectively ensure that teachers should teach as much as they should, and students should learn enough to learn well.
The more important the task, the more it is necessary to find small incisions.
"If you don't do homework, your mother is kind and filial, but when you write homework, chickens and dogs jump." Although this is a joke, it shows the "pain point" of students' academic burden.
The "double reduction" policy is exactly in line with this "pain point". It proposes to improve the operation management mechanism, reasonably control the operation structure, classify and clarify the total amount of operations, improve the quality of operation design, and strengthen the guidance of operation completion. The operation management method has been established, and the operation publicity system has been established.
By the end of 2021, at the press conference of the Ministry of Education, Lv Yugang gave such a set of data: The regulation of the total amount of schoolwork and the duration of schoolwork in schools in various places basically meets the prescribed requirements, and the proportion of students who complete written assignments within the prescribed time The ratio has increased from 46% before the "double reduction" to more than 90% at present.
In many places, efforts have been made to improve the quality of homework design by formulating assignment design guidelines for sub-disciplines, conducting assignment design competitions and high-quality assignment display and exchange activities, and the problem of students' heavy homework burden has been preliminarily resolved.
Where there is a decrease, there is an increase.
In order to make better use of the "3:30 after school" time of primary and secondary school students, the Ministry of Education requires schools in all regions to proceed from the actual situation, "one school, one case" to formulate and improve specific implementation plans for after-school services to ensure that all compulsory education schools are fully implemented. cover.
The Ministry of Education proposed the "5+2" model, that is, schools should carry out after-school services 5 days a week, at least 2 hours a day, and the end time should be in line with the local normal off-duty time.
At the same time, extended custody services should also be provided for students whose parents have difficulty picking up their children.
Up to now, schools all over the country have basically achieved "5+2" full coverage, and the quality of after-school service projects has been effectively improved.
According to authoritative statistics, 92.7% of schools have carried out literary, artistic and sports activities, 88.3% of schools have carried out reading activities, and 87.3% of schools have carried out popular science, interest groups and community activities. The attractiveness of after-school services has been significantly enhanced.
91.7% of teachers participated in providing after-school services, and at the same time, more than 200,000 qualified social professionals were selected and hired to participate in school after-school services, which basically met the different learning needs of students. The proportion of students who voluntarily participated in after-school services increased from The 49.1% in the last semester has increased to the current 91.9%, which effectively promotes the return of students' learning to campus.
However, the superficial "increase" and "decrease" are not the ultimate goal of "double decrease".
"The implementation of a series of measures of 'double reduction' is ultimately forcing basic education to intensify reform efforts and innovate development models, which is a booster for basic education to deepen reform and accelerate development." Dong Shengzu said.
As experts have said, the implementation of the "double reduction" policy is essentially a correction in the field of education, especially in the field of basic education, and a return to the law of education.
Therefore, with the implementation and implementation of the "double reduction" policy, it will inevitably bring about deeper changes in basic education.
It is an opportunity and a challenge.
During the National People's Congress and the National People's Congress this year, Li Shuqiang, a representative of the National People's Congress and the principal of Tianjiabing Middle School in Longchuan County, Heyuan City, Guangdong Province, said in an interview with a reporter from China Youth Daily and China Youth Daily that the "double reduction" has enriched the lives of children in mountainous areas, and their hearts have become stronger. There is a sense of belonging and presence.
But at the same time, it also brings great challenges to mountain education in terms of teaching transformation, after-school services, home-school relationship and how to truly reduce burden and increase efficiency.
In fact, the challenges are universal.
"In the past, off-campus tutoring grew excessively under the influence of involution and capital. Now, after the drug has been removed, it is necessary to consolidate the basics and cultivate the yuan. After reducing the number of extra-curriculars, it is necessary to strengthen the on-campus. To do this, we need to release the vitality of educational elements. , to strengthen the flow of high-quality educational resources." said Qu Yifan, director of the Research Department of the Education and Open Economy Research Center of the University of International Business and Economics.
Many places have put forward practical solutions.
For example, Linquan County, Fuyang, Anhui organized a full-disciplinary unit assignment design seminar to discuss operation management policies and operation design strategies under the background of "double reduction".
Wanshan Primary School in Wusheng County, Guang'an, Sichuan carried out "mirror teaching", in-depth study of teaching materials, teachers promote each other, make the classroom more dynamic and improve students' learning efficiency.
In addition, Inner Mongolia has made it clear that the "flexible commuting" system for teachers will be established from the spring semester of 2022, and the AB post system will be set up for after-school services to facilitate teachers' emergency adjustment of time, rationally arrange teachers' study, lesson preparation and rest time, and protect teachers' basic rights and interests.
As the first batch of pilot cities for the "double reduction", Beijing proposed the policy of "promoting the exchange of cadres and teachers in a large area and a large proportion"...
After a series of combined boxing measures, the biggest change was in the school classroom.
In the first-year language group of the Miyun branch of Beijing Yuying School, the teachers combined several texts such as "Chen Taiqiu and You Qi's Journey", "Yong Xue" and "Walking" into a unit with the theme of "Family Style", and then A situational task was designed for the students: My school is selecting "the most beautiful family style". In this activity, do you think Yuan Fang and his friends can be selected?
Talk about your reasons.
The enthusiasm of the students was suddenly mobilized, and the classroom was alive. "This problem has a good 'substitute sense', allowing students to analyze characters in real life situations and solve the difficulties in learning." Principal Zhang Yushu said.
"Double reduction" policy, "reduction" is only a measure and a means, "behind the word 'reduction' is 'lift', which is 'increase'." Li Yi, deputy secretary of the Beijing Municipal Education and Work Committee, accepted the China Youth Daily · China Youth Network The reporter said in an exclusive interview that the quality of education and teaching is "improved", and the child's actual sense of gain is "increased". "Only in this way can we truly take responsibility for the growth of children."
It has been ten months since the "Double Reduction" policy was introduced, and it has achieved very significant results. The reform of the entire basic education field driven by the "Double Reduction" policy has also begun. We look forward to a better education ecology coming soon.
China Youth Daily, China Youth Daily reporter Fan Weichen Source: China Youth Daily
May 25, 2022 Edition 03Keywords: