Continue to increase conservation efforts to enrich biodiversity

  In 2022, my country will establish a new batch of national parks (Beautiful China, Focus on Biodiversity Protection (Part 1))

  core reading

  May 22 is the International Day for Biological Diversity, and this year's theme is "Building a Community of Life on Earth".

  Biodiversity is related to human well-being and is an important foundation for human survival and development.

Since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, my country has continued to strengthen the rescue and protection of rare and endangered wild animals and plants and their habitats, and biodiversity has become more abundant.

  The wild population of giant pandas has increased to 1,864, the wild population of crested ibis has exceeded 6,000, and the wild population of Tibetan antelope has recovered to more than 300,000... The reporter learned from the State Forestry and Grassland Administration on the 22nd: Since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, my country has continued to strengthen Rare and endangered wild animals and plants and their habitats have been rescued and protected, a large number of rare and endangered wild animals and plants have achieved recovery growth, the protection rate of national key wild animals and plants has increased to 74%, and biodiversity has become more abundant.

  richer

  The number of wild populations of more than 300 rare and endangered wild animals and plants has steadily increased

  In recent years, my country has systematically implemented endangered species rescue projects, and adopted measures such as in situ protection, ex situ protection, release (return) to nature, and artificial breeding (cultivation), effectively protecting 90% of typical terrestrial ecosystem types, more than 300 types The wild population of rare and endangered wild animals and plants has steadily increased.

At present, there are nearly 200 botanical gardens of various types and levels in my country, and more than 20,000 species have been collected and preserved, accounting for 2/3 of my country's flora.

206 species of rare and endangered plants have returned to the wild, of which 112 are endemic to my country.

Elk and Przewalski's wild horses once disappeared in the wild. At present, through artificial breeding and other methods, the total number has reached nearly 10,000 and 700 respectively. They have been successfully released into nature, and the wild population has been re-established, and the living area and scope have been continuously expanded.

  Maintaining the authenticity and integrity of natural ecosystems helps protect biodiversity.

In recent years, my country has launched the construction of a natural reserve system and a national botanical garden system with national parks as the main body, forming a relatively complete biodiversity conservation system combining in situ conservation and ex situ conservation.

The first batch of national parks in Sanjiangyuan, Giant Panda, Siberian Tiger and Leopard, Hainan Tropical Rainforest, and Wuyi Mountain were established, with a protected area of ​​230,000 square kilometers, covering nearly 30% of the terrestrial national key protected wild animal and plant species.

The official establishment of the National Botanical Garden in Beijing marks that the construction of a world-class national botanical garden system with Chinese characteristics has entered a new stage, and the stability and reliability of plant diversity protection have been further improved.

  At the same time, my country has carried out a series of in-depth system construction and law enforcement crackdowns, comprehensively prohibiting the illegal trade of wild animals and plants, and continuously increasing biodiversity protection.

The wildlife protection system has become more complete. The Wildlife Protection Law has been revised, the "List of National Key Protected Wild Animals" and the "National Key Protected Wild Plant List" have been adjusted and released, and relevant supporting management systems have been formulated and implemented.

  According to reports, in the next step, the State Forestry and Grassland Administration will accelerate the construction of nature reserves with national parks as the main body in accordance with the overall goal of the "National Parks and other Natural Reserves Construction and Wildlife Protection Major Project Construction Plan (2021-2035)" system to promote biodiversity conservation.

During the "14th Five-Year Plan" period, the protection of the national key protected wild animals and plants such as giant pandas, Siberian tigers, Siberian leopards, Asian elephants, gibbons, snow leopards, Yangtze finless porpoises, cycads, orchids will be further strengthened, and ensure that by 2025 In 2010, the protection rate of the number of terrestrial wild animals under national key protection reached 75%, and the protection rate of the number of terrestrial wild plants under national key protection reached 80%.

  In addition, my country has compiled a plan for the spatial layout of national parks, which will comprehensively consider the natural geographical pattern, ecological function pattern, biodiversity and typical landscape distribution characteristics, and select about 50 candidate areas for national parks, with a total area of ​​about 50% of the national land area. 10% of China's most representative ecosystems and more than 80% of national key protected wildlife species and their habitats.

This year, my country will also establish a new batch of national parks in areas with important ecological locations and good ecological functions, such as the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, the Yellow River Basin, and the Yangtze River Basin.

  more effort

  Carry out the release of rare and unique fish, promote the integration and optimization of nature reserves, etc.

  On the 22nd, the Wuhan Yangtze River Finless Dolphin Breeding and Conservation Technology Research Center was officially unveiled at the Baiji Dolphinarium in Wuhan City, Hubei Province.

The research center was jointly established by Wuhan City and the Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences. It will continue to maintain and improve the breeding environment of the Yangtze finless porpoise through research on the reproductive biology, ecology, bioacoustics, and conservation biology of the Yangtze finless porpoise, and strive to overcome the breeding of finless porpoises. , breeding, conservation and other key technologies, laying the foundation for the final return of artificially bred individuals to the Yangtze River.

  Recently, the "Yunnan Province Ecological Civilization Construction Vanguard Plan (2021-2025)" was issued, proposing to implement key species and ecosystem protection projects, Asian elephant protection projects, flagship wildlife important habitat protection and restoration key projects, and extremely small populations. Wild plant rescue and protection projects, etc., integrate the concept of biodiversity protection into the whole process of ecological civilization construction.

  The protection of biodiversity is inseparable from the efforts of everyone.

In recent years, various localities have continued to advance work related to biodiversity conservation. From animals to plants, from land to rivers, the ecological environment has continued to improve, and biodiversity has become increasingly rich.

  The reporter learned from China Three Gorges Corporation that in the past 40 years, about 20 species and nearly 10 million rare and unique fishes from the Yangtze River have been released into the Yangtze River, providing strong support for the protection of biodiversity in the Yangtze River.

"The Yangtze River is an important treasure house of species and genes in my country, and has nurtured abundant fish resources." Jiang Wei, chief engineer of the China Sturgeon Research Institute of the Three Gorges Group, introduced that since its establishment in 1982, the China Sturgeon Research Institute has taken artificial conservation, breeding and release as the The main task of the conservation of fish biodiversity in the Yangtze River.

Up to now, the Chinese Sturgeon Research Institute has successfully domesticated more than 60 kinds of rare and endemic fish in the Yangtze River, laying a technical foundation for its ex situ conservation; it has mastered the artificial breeding technology of more than 20 kinds of rare and endemic fish in the Yangtze River, including the national first-level key protection Wild animals Chinese sturgeon, Yangtze River sturgeon, national second-level key protected wild animals rouge, round mouth copper fish, etc.

  On the other hand, the improvement and restoration of habitat environment is one of the important conditions for the improvement of biodiversity.

At present, Guangdong has established 1,361 nature reserves, the integration and optimization of the province's nature reserves has been steadily progressing, the natural reserve system framework has been preliminarily established, and the ecological protection pattern has been further optimized.

At the same time, Guangdong has further strengthened the protection of animals and plants, revised and released the "Guangdong Province Key Protection Terrestrial Wildlife List", and severely cracked down on the illegal trade of wild animals.

  And in Changyang Tujia Autonomous County, Yichang, Hubei Province, "One Tree" also has a museum.

A few days ago, a special Dove tree history museum opened in Changyang. The museum has nearly 1,000 pictures and nearly one million characters of text materials, showing the history of the growth, reproduction and migration of Dove tree for more than 100 years.

According to reports, Dove tree, also known as "Pigeon Tree", is a national first-class key protected wild plant.

  more discoveries

  The newly released Chinese biological species list, adding 10,343 species and subspecies units

  Biological species are the most important taxa in nature.

To achieve more efficient protection, it’s important to know what’s going on in your home.

On the 22nd, the Biodiversity Committee of the Chinese Academy of Sciences released the 2022 edition of the Chinese Biological Species List online, adding 10,343 species and subspecies units compared with the 2021 edition. This work has been going on for more than 10 years.

  Since 2008, in order to find out the background of China's biodiversity, the Biodiversity Committee of the Chinese Academy of Sciences has organized more than 200 domestic experts to comprehensively and systematically collect and sort out the publicly published Chinese biological species data, and each data is verified and confirmed by taxonomic experts. , and finally compiled into the "China Biological Species List", which is published every year in the form of an annual list.

  According to reports, the 2022 edition of the list was led by the Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and completed in conjunction with taxonomic experts from the Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and Institute of Oceanography, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

A total of 138,293 species and subspecies were included, including 125,034 species and 13,259 subspecies.

  The constantly updated data of the "China Inventory of Biological Species" is also a microcosm of the new progress and breakthroughs made by Chinese scholars in biodiversity conservation research in recent years.

It is worth mentioning that in 2021, Chinese scholars have achieved remarkable results in the study of bacterial taxonomy. 380 Chinese scholars participated in the publication of 1,124 new names of fungi, accounting for nearly 1/3 of the total number of new names in the world.

  "The list of biological species is the basic data for understanding biodiversity. Only when the background is clear can it be possible to conduct better research, protection and related decision-making." The relevant person in charge of the Biodiversity Committee of the Chinese Academy of Sciences said that China is the only one A country that publishes a list of biological species every year, China's biological species list has been widely adopted since its release.

  According to statistics, since 2018, the online species page of the Chinese Biological Species Inventory has been visited more than 10 million times, supporting a series of biodiversity-related scientific research, conservation decision-making and scientific popularization. Convention and other relevant international conventions are of great significance.

  (Comprehensive reports from our reporters Kou Jiangze, Wu Yuehui, Wang Hao, Fan Haotian, Qiang Yuwen, Ye Chuanzeng, Hong Qiuting)

Keywords: