◆ "Biodiversity makes the earth full of life and is also the foundation of human survival and development. The protection of biodiversity helps to maintain the earth's homeland and promote the sustainable development of human beings." October 12, 2021, in the "Convention on Biological Diversity" At the 15th COP Leaders Summit, President Xi Jinping emphasized

  ◆ As early as more than 2,000 years ago, Chinese sages put forward the idea of ​​"all things grow together without harming each other", "heaven and earth coexist with me, and all things and I are one", which reflects the harmonious coexistence of man and nature. idea

  ◆ By building a scientific and rational nature reserve system, 90% of my country's terrestrial ecosystem types and 71% of national key protected wild animal and plant species have been effectively protected, and wild populations of some rare and endangered species have gradually recovered

  ◆ The number of giant pandas increased from 1,114 in the 1970s and 1980s to 1,864; the critically endangered Hainan gibbons increased from 7 to 9 at the low point to more than 30; the crested ibis recovered from 7 at the time of discovery to more than 5,000 only; Tibetan antelopes have recovered from tens of thousands to more than 300,000 at present

  ◆ In the past ten years, about 200 new plant species have been discovered in China every year, accounting for 1/10 of the global annual increase in new plant species.

  ◆ The concept of "lucid waters and lush mountains are invaluable assets" has been widely accepted by the Chinese society, which enhances China's leading position in biodiversity conservation

  ◆ Since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, my country has promulgated and revised the Forest Law, the Grassland Law, the Fisheries Law, the Wildlife Protection Law, the Environmental Protection Law, the Marine Environmental Protection Law, the Seed Law, the Wetland Law, the Yangtze River Protection Law, and the Biosafety Law. More than 20 biodiversity-related laws and regulations

  ◆ In the integrated management of mountains, rivers, forests, fields, lakes, grass and sand, my country has carried out a series of fundamental, pioneering and long-term work, and the construction of ecological civilization has undergone historic, turning and overall changes from recognition to practice.

  ◆ From 2019, China has become the largest contributor to the core budget of the Convention on Biological Diversity and its Protocols

  ◆ The China Declaration, China's Responsibilities, and China's Propositions on Biodiversity Conservation will surely inject stronger confidence and impetus into global ecological environment governance

  By Gao Jing, reporter of "Liaowang" Newsweek

  May 22, International Day for Biological Diversity.

  Biodiversity is related to human well-being and is an important foundation for human survival and development.

As early as more than 2,000 years ago, Chinese sages once put forward the idea of ​​"all things grow together without harming each other", "heaven and earth coexist with me, and all things and I are one", which reflects the concept of harmonious coexistence between man and nature. .

  my country has a vast territory, both land and sea, complex and diverse landforms and climates, and has nurtured rich and unique ecosystems, species and genetic diversity. One of the parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity.

  The prosperity of ecology leads to the prosperity of civilization, and the decline of ecology leads to the decline of civilization.

  "Biodiversity makes the earth full of life and is also the foundation of human survival and development. The protection of biological diversity helps to maintain the earth's homeland and promote sustainable human development." On October 12, 2021, in the "Convention on Biological Diversity" No. At the 15th Conference of the Parties (COP15) leaders summit, President Xi Jinping emphasized this.

  Since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, under the guidance of Xi Jinping's thought on ecological civilization, my country has adhered to ecological priority and green development, the legal system of ecological and environmental protection has been continuously improved, the supervision mechanism has been continuously strengthened, the basic capacity has been greatly improved, and a new pattern of biodiversity governance has basically been formed. Biodiversity conservation has entered a new historical period.

Conservation and Restoration Chinese Answer Sheet

  "Look! It's coming out again! One, two, at least six..." On the afternoon of April 22, Xu Jianli, president of the Wuhan Xinzhou District Environmental Protection Volunteer Association, saw the finless porpoise playing in the water again by the Yangtze River.

  The Yangtze finless porpoise is a flagship species of biodiversity and an indicator of the ecological health of the Yangtze River.

At 0:00 on January 1, 2021, the 10-year fishing ban in key waters of the Yangtze River Basin was fully launched.

The fishermen came ashore, and the finless porpoise was "going home".

  Cute finless porpoises, naive giant pandas, an orchid in a deep valley... Biodiversity makes this blue planet very lively.

  According to statistics, more than 3 billion people worldwide depend on marine and coastal biodiversity for their livelihoods, and more than 1.6 billion people rely on forests and non-timber forest products for their livelihoods.

More than 50% of the pharmaceutical ingredients in the world are derived from natural animals and plants.

  However, the global rate of species extinction is accelerating, and biodiversity loss and ecosystem degradation pose significant risks to human survival and development.

Reports show that about 1 million animal and plant species are currently threatened with extinction, many of which are likely to become extinct in the next few decades.

The current rate of species extinction is tens to hundreds of times higher than the average over the past 10 million years, and it is accelerating.

  "We must stand at the height of responsibility for human civilization, respect nature, conform to nature, protect nature, explore the way of harmonious coexistence between man and nature, promote the coordination and unity of economic development and ecological protection, and jointly build a prosperous, clean and beautiful world." On September 30, 2020, President Xi Jinping delivered an important speech at the United Nations Biodiversity Summit via video.

  Since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, under the guidance of Xi Jinping's thought on ecological civilization, my country has continuously strengthened the protection and restoration of wildlife and habitats through various measures such as promoting the construction of a natural reserve system and cracking down on illegal trade. Significant results.

  Continuously optimize the in-situ protection system.

my country actively promotes the establishment of a natural reserve system with national parks as the main body, nature reserves as the foundation, and various natural parks as supplements to protect important natural ecosystems and biological resources, and play an active role in maintaining important species habitats——

  In 2021, one of the "Internet celebrities" in the animal kingdom will be the wild Asian elephants in Yunnan who "walk and eat all the way".

From the north to the south, the elephant herd traveled more than 1,000 kilometers in a circuitous way. The elephant protection action of the Chinese government and the masses has won the world's recognition.

Through years of protection, the wild population of Asian elephants in my country has increased from 180 in the 1980s to about 300 at present.

On August 12, 2021, a herd of Asian elephants entered Mojiang County, Yunnan, and returned to their traditional habitat.

Yunnan elephants' journey to the north and their return reflects China's achievements in protecting wild animals. Photo by He Yougang / This issue

  Since 2015, my country has successively launched 10 national park system pilots including Sanjiangyuan.

In 2021, the first batch of national parks such as Sanjiangyuan, giant panda, Siberian tiger and leopard, Hainan tropical rain forest and Wuyi Mountain will be officially established.

  Up to now, there are nearly 10,000 natural reserves of various types in my country, with an area of ​​more than 170 million hectares, accounting for about 18% of the land area. The goal.

The total area of ​​marine nature reserves is 124,000 square kilometers, accounting for about 4.1% of the sea area under my country's jurisdiction.

  The ecological protection red line system is my country's institutional innovation in the management and control of territorial space, which further strengthens the protection of key biodiversity areas.

Since the start of the work in 2014, my country's preliminary national ecological protection red line area is not less than 25% of the land area, and areas with extremely important ecological functions such as biodiversity maintenance and ecologically vulnerable areas are included in the ecological protection red line. Strict protection.

  In September 2019, in the "Nature-Based Solutions (NBS)" activity of the UN Secretary-General's Climate Action Summit, China's ecological protection red line case was successfully selected as 15 excellent cases around the world.

  Through the establishment of a scientific and rational nature reserve system, 90% of my country's terrestrial ecosystem types and 71% of national key protected wild animal and plant species have been effectively protected, and the wild populations of some rare and endangered species have gradually recovered.

From the south to the north, from the inland to the seashore, more and more rare birds and animals are returning, showing the beauty of nature and ecology.

  At present, the number of giant pandas has increased from 1,114 in the 1970s and 1980s to 1,864; the critically endangered Hainan gibbons have increased from 7 to 9 at the trough to more than 30; crested ibis have recovered from 7 at the time of discovery to 5,000 The number of Tibetan antelopes has recovered from tens of thousands to more than 300,000 at present.

On January 28, 2021, crested ibis perched on a river rock in the Han River section of Pangwan Village, Jinjinxia Town, Yangxian County, Shaanxi Province. Photo by Tao Benyao / This issue

  Continue to increase ex situ protection.

my country has established relatively complete ex situ conservation systems such as botanical gardens, zoos (including marine parks and aquariums), wildlife rescue and breeding bases, germplasm resource banks, and gene banks—

  On April 18 this year, the National Botanical Garden was officially unveiled in Beijing, marking a new step in China's biodiversity conservation.

The National Botanical Garden will focus on collecting more than 30,000 species of native plants in the three northern regions, representative plants in the northern temperate zone, representative plants in different geographic regions around the world, and rare and endangered plants, collecting 5 million representative plant specimens from five continents, and building 20 special categories. Garden, 7 phylogenetic plant display areas and 1 native plant conservation area.

  In recent years, my country has paid more attention to the protection of germplasm resources. Nearly 200 botanical gardens (arboreal gardens) have been established, and more than 23,000 species of plants (about 60% of the total plant species in China) have been preserved. and other endangered plant germplasm resources.

Some very small populations of wild plants, such as Putuo Hornbeam, Huagaimu, and Emei Hanxiao, have initially escaped the risk of extinction.

  A species is a gene pool.

In the verdant dense forests in the northern suburbs of Kunming, the Southwest China Wildlife Germplasm Resource Bank preserves more than 10,000 species of plant seeds, including Dove tree, Himalayan yew, Maitreya, etc., including many rare and endangered plants, tens of thousands of species of wild plants. The seeds live together in this "Noah's Ark".

This germplasm resource bank, together with the Kew Millennium Seed Bank in the UK and the Svalbard Global Seed Bank in Norway, has become an important facility for global biodiversity conservation.

  At present, there are more than 240 zoos (animal exhibition areas) in the country, raising 775 kinds of domestic and foreign animals; 250 wild animal rescue and breeding bases have been established, and more than 60 kinds of rare and endangered wild animals have been successfully artificially bred and stable artificial populations have been established.

  The national biosecurity management capacity continued to improve.

In recent years, my country's biotechnology has developed healthily, the protection and supervision of biological genetic resources have been continuously strengthened, and the prevention and control mechanism of alien species invasion has been gradually improved——

  The big black bow-backed ant, the Javan short-breasted longhorn beetle, the chia sage... These exotic species were intercepted by the customs in various places from the luggage, mail and other channels of passengers.

In the first quarter of this year, customs across the country intercepted 173 species of quarantine pests and 13,900 times.

  While strengthening port prevention and control and strictly preventing and controlling the invasion of alien species, my country is striving to improve the safety management of genetically modified organisms and strengthen the supervision of biological genetic resources.

In recent years, relevant departments have organized the national census of traditional Chinese medicine resources, the national census and collection of crop germplasm resources, the census of livestock and poultry genetic resources, and the census of forest and grass germplasm resources. Distribution, conservation and utilization status.

  In the past ten years, an average of about 200 new plant species have been discovered in China every year, accounting for 1/10 of the global annual increase in new plant species.

Systematic governance Chinese wisdom

  On May 5, Sanjiangyuan National Park.

The first batch of 137 female Tibetan antelopes to give birth traveled through the Qinghai-Tibet Railway and the Qinghai-Tibet Highway Animal Passage to Zhuonai Lake in Hoh Xil, the birthplace.

The annual large-scale migration of Tibetan antelopes in Hoh Xil has thus kicked off.

  "The survival of Tibetan antelope population continues to improve, which is one of the successful cases of human participation in species protection," said Lian Xinming, a researcher at the Northwest Plateau Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  "

  The story of "Tibetan antelope" is a microcosm, witnessing the Chinese wisdom of biodiversity conservation.

  Since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, my country's biodiversity conservation has been aimed at building a beautiful China, actively adapting to the new situation and new requirements, raising biodiversity conservation as a national strategy, improving the policy and regulation system, promoting biodiversity conservation and improving people's livelihood organically. Combined, we will coordinately promote the integrated protection and systematic management of mountains, rivers, forests, fields, lakes, grass and sand, and continuously improve the ability of biodiversity management.

  Adhere to the harmonious coexistence of man and nature, and actively promote the mainstreaming process of biodiversity conservation with the national strategy——

  Since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, General Secretary Xi Jinping has personally planned and arranged major biodiversity conservation projects, and made biodiversity an important part of the construction of ecological civilization and elevated it to a national strategy.

  On September 11, 2015, the Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China held a meeting to review and approve the Overall Plan for the Reform of the Ecological Civilization System, which became the top-level design of the reform in the field of ecological civilization in my country.

  Cui Shuhong, director of the Department of Natural Ecological Protection of the Ministry of Ecology and Environment, has a particularly deep feeling about the mainstreaming of biodiversity protection.

He introduced that in recent years, my country has included biodiversity protection on the important agenda of government departments, and has clearly established "the rate of biodiversity loss is basically controlled and the stability of the national ecosystem is significantly enhanced" as one of the main goals of ecological civilization construction. , and gradually incorporated into various planning plans at all levels.

  The "14th Five-Year Plan" and the outline of the long-term goals for 2035 systematically deploy the implementation of major biodiversity conservation projects and the construction of biodiversity conservation networks as key tasks to improve the quality and stability of ecosystems.

  Accelerate the construction of an ecological civilization system, and build a system of "four beams and eight pillars" for the protection of thousands of plants and trees——

  Since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, my country has promulgated and revised the Forest Law, the Grassland Law, the Fisheries Law, the Wildlife Protection Law, the Environmental Protection Law, the Marine Environmental Protection Law, the Seed Law, the Wetland Law, the Yangtze River Protection Law, and the Biosafety Law. A number of biodiversity-related laws and regulations cover areas such as wildlife and important ecosystem protection, biosecurity, access to genetic resources and benefit sharing.

  On February 24, 2020, the 16th meeting of the Standing Committee of the 13th National People's Congress passed the "Decision on Comprehensively Prohibiting Illegal Wildlife Trade, Eliminating the Bad Habits of Eating Wild Animals, and Effectively Protecting the Lives, Health and Safety of the People".

A series of policies and regulations, medium and long-term plans and action plans provide a solid institutional guarantee for biodiversity conservation and management.

  Adhere to the fact that lucid waters and lush mountains are invaluable assets, and promote the organic combination of biodiversity protection and people's livelihood improvement——

  Hu Bin, a villager in Yucun, Tianhuangping Town, Anji County, Zhejiang Province, is a native.

In the early years of the village, the scene of mining in the mountains, the roar of guns, and the dust filling the sky were his deepest childhood memories.

  In 2005, Xi Jinping, then secretary of the Zhejiang Provincial Party Committee, came to Yucun for inspection and put forward the scientific conclusion that "lucid waters and lush mountains are invaluable assets".

  Yucun, who has firmly practiced this important concept, has a new look now.

With the closure of the mine to restore the ecology, now Yucun has scenery in all seasons.

Five years ago, Hu Bin, who had been working abroad for many years, returned to his hometown and opened an inn.

  From "selling stones" to "selling scenery", the two-way transformation of "lucid waters and lush mountains" and "gold and silver mountains" has been realized, reflecting the historic change of China's green development concept.

  Explore the accounting of the gross production value of the ecosystem, expand the horizontal ecological compensation of the river basin, and vigorously develop the green ecological industry... All localities explore the two-way transformation of "lucid waters and lush mountains" and "gold and silver mountains", and ecological protection and economic development have found a win-win road.

  Inge Annoson, executive director of the United Nations Environment Programme, said that the concept of "lucid waters and lush mountains are invaluable assets" has been widely accepted by Chinese society, which has enhanced China's leading position in biodiversity conservation.

  Adhere to the concept of system, and promote the integrated protection and systematic management of mountains, rivers, forests, fields, lakes, grasses and sands——

  Mountains, rivers, forests, fields, lakes, grass and sand are inseparable communities of life.

  In November 2013, General Secretary Xi Jinping stated in his statement on the "Decision of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China on Major Issues Concerning Comprehensively Deepening Reforms" that "landscapes, forests, fields and lakes are a community of life".

Since then, this important discussion has been continuously enriched and expanded, adding "grass" and "sand" in 2017 and 2021 respectively, focusing on adhering to the system concept, starting from the integrity of the ecosystem, and promoting the integrated protection of mountains, rivers, forests, fields, lakes, grass and sand and restoration to improve ecosystem stability and sustainability.

  A series of major ecological projects such as the Three-North Shelterbelt, natural forest protection, and returning farmland to forest and grassland have been further advanced; the establishment of a natural reserve system with national parks as the main body has been accelerated; the river chief system and lake chief system have been established in an all-round way. Every lake has its own guardian... Since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, my country has carried out a series of fundamental, pioneering and long-term work in the integrated management of mountains, rivers, forests, fields, lakes, grass and sand, and the construction of ecological civilization has happened from awareness to practice. sex, turning point, global change.

  In recent years, on the basis of major biodiversity conservation projects, my country has carried out comprehensive biodiversity surveys and assessments. At present, the status of biodiversity in my country has been basically figured out, and nearly 180 counties have completed biodiversity backgrounds and more than 3,500 kilometers of coastal waters. Survey and assessment of wetland ecosystems.

my country has initially formed a national biodiversity observation network, established 749 observation sample areas, laid out a national biodiversity observation network with 11,887 transect lines and sample points, and constructed 2,376 county-level administrative units and observation samples. A database of species distribution with line lengths over 34,000 km.

  The Secretariat of the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity released the fifth edition of the Global Biodiversity Outlook in September 2020, of which 13 times demonstrated China's successful experience in biodiversity conservation.

The Chinese wisdom of the unity of man and nature, the natural law of Taoism, and the Chinese plan have won the recognition of the world.

Earth Homeland China

  Hainan Tropical Rainforest National Park, the mountains and forests are lush, and the refreshing green is blowing.

  On April 11, when General Secretary Xi Jinping went to Hainan for inspection, he went deep into the Wuzhishan area, walked along the wooden plank road to inspect the ecological environment of the park, stopped from time to time, and asked about the growth of trees, water conservation, and protection of animal and plant resources.

  "The tropical rainforest in Hainan does not only belong to Hainan, but belongs to the people of the whole country, it belongs to the earth, and it is a national treasure." General Secretary Xi Jinping pointed out that Hainan must adhere to the ecological province and unswervingly take the construction of ecological civilization as the top priority. Rainforests are strictly protected to achieve the unification of ecological protection, green development and improvement of people's livelihood, showing to the world the fruitful results of China's national park construction and biodiversity protection.

  Biodiversity protection has China's declaration, China's responsibility, and China's proposition.

  To build consensus and build a community of life on earth, this is China's declaration——

  At present, human beings are standing at the crossroads of protecting biodiversity and realizing global sustainable development.

The earth is the common home of mankind. Facing global challenges such as biodiversity loss, all countries are a community with a shared future.

  On October 12, 2021, at the 15th Conference of the Parties Leaders' Summit of the Convention on Biological Diversity, President Xi Jinping pointed out: "The international community should strengthen cooperation, think in one place, work together, and work together. Build a community of life on earth."

  The "Kunming Declaration" proposed by China and gathering broad consensus from all parties was formally adopted at the high-level meeting.

The Declaration commits to ensure the development, adoption and implementation of an effective Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework to reverse current trends in biodiversity loss and ensure that biodiversity is on a path to recovery by 2030, fully Realize the 2050 vision of harmonious coexistence between man and nature.

A large-scale painted work in the press center of the fifteenth meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity, showing the beautiful ecological environment and rich biodiversity (photographed on October 12, 2021) Photo by Wang Nan / this issue

  Firmly fulfilling the Convention and participating in global biodiversity governance, this is China's responsibility—

  As an important participant and contributor to global biodiversity conservation, China actively implements the Convention and its protocols, provides solutions that can be used for reference by the world, and fully demonstrates its responsibility as a major country.

  Since 2019, China has become the largest contributor to the core budget of the Convention on Biological Diversity and its protocols.

Continuing to increase donations to the GEF, China has become the largest donor country from developing countries to the GEF.

  In May 2016, the United Nations Environment Programme released the report "Lucid waters and lush mountains are invaluable assets: China's ecological civilization strategy and action" report.

China's ecological civilization construction has become a useful exploration and concrete practice of the concept of sustainable development, and provides experience and reference for other countries to deal with similar economic, environmental and social challenges.

  These Chinese practices condense Chinese wisdom and further send a strong signal to the world that China will unswervingly follow the path of green development.

  Extensive cooperation to jointly safeguard the earth's homeland, this is China's proposition -

  In the Sino-Russian cross-border nature reserve, the number of species continues to grow, and wild Siberian tigers begin to migrate freely between the Sino-Russian protected areas.

  In the China-Laos Transboundary Biodiversity Joint Reserve, this 200,000-hectare "land of paradise" effectively protects rare and endangered species such as Asian elephants and their habitats.

  At the 15th COP Leaders Summit of the Convention on Biological Diversity, President Xi Jinping solemnly announced that China will take the lead in contributing 1.5 billion yuan to establish the Kunming Biodiversity Fund to support biodiversity conservation in developing countries.

  China's declaration, China's responsibility and China's proposition on biodiversity protection will surely inject stronger confidence and impetus into global ecological and environmental governance.

  According to the previous arrangement, the second phase of COP15 will continue to be held in Kunming this year, and will discuss the "Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework" and jointly draw a blueprint for global biodiversity conservation in the next 10 years and beyond.

  It is expected that this meeting will adopt an ambitious, balanced and pragmatic "framework" that will truly help all countries to help each other, work together to achieve win-win cooperation, and jointly build a community of life on earth.

  Keep going, the future is bright.

Standing at a new starting point, the international community will walk hand in hand, and we will surely be able to build a beautiful earth home together.

Published in the 21st issue of "Looking" in 2022

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