Several studies by polling institutes provide interesting lessons on the electoral sociology of the first round of the presidential election.
Young people do not establish the same top three, depending on their age, because their concerns differ.
Living conditions and place of residence also played an important role in the ballot box.
Of course, we know the top three, but what is hidden behind the figures?
Emmanuel Macron came out on top on Sunday after the first round of the presidential election with 27.85% of the votes cast, ahead of Marine Le Pen (23.15%) and Jean-Luc Mélenchon, eliminated despite his 21.95%, according to the final results of the Ministry of the Interior.
But the sociology of the vote allows us to learn more about who voted for which candidate.
And especially for what reasons.
18-24 year olds favor the rebellious
More than a third (34.8%) of young people between the ages of 18 and 24 chose to vote for Jean-Luc Mélenchon in the first round, followed by Emmanuel Macron (24.3%) and Marine Le Pen (18%), indicates the sociological analysis* carried out by the Harris Interactive Institute for M6 – RTL.
Patrick Bruneteaux, CNRS researcher specializing in political sociology, analyzes the dominant position of the tribune in this age group as "the fact of children from the middle classes and working-class neighborhoods".
“They knew the school mix and the theme of creolization, dear to Mélenchon, speaks to them a lot.
And this part of the youth wanted to express its radical opposition to the National Rally.
For Jérôme Sainte-Marie, political scientist and president of the Pollingvox Institute, "this age group brings together students,
Those aged 25-34 place Marine Le Pen in the lead
But the ranking of slightly older young voters is not at all the same.
Among 25-34 year olds, Marine Le Pen leads with 30% among 25-34 year olds, Jean-Luc Mélenchon reaches 27.8%, Emmanuel Macron obtains 19.3% of the vote, according to the Harris study Interactive.
No doubt because these young people have finished their studies, are starting their professional lives and have other concerns than their youngest.
“They have no assets, have housing difficulties, encounter problems of professional integration.
It is usually the most angry electoral category, which is tempted by the extremes, because it realizes that society does not keep all its promises to them,” analyzes Jérôme Sainte-Marie.
“This vote is a reflection of the precariousness of many young people occupying their first job.
Retirees strongly supported Emmanuel Macron
Still according to the Harris Interactive study, Emmanuel Macron is in the lead among those aged 65 and over, with 37.5% of the vote, far ahead of the candidate for the National Rally (18.1%) and the leader of rebellious France. (11.3%).
This is explained without difficulty by Patrick Bruneteaux: “The older we get, the more the vote becomes conservative, especially among the dominant class.
To keep Macron is to be part of the continuity of a liberal policy;
it has a reassuring side for this age group.
“Same story with Jérôme Sainte-Marie:” Macron is considered by them as the guarantor of their income.
Moreover, they were the age category most favorable to the pension reform envisaged by Macron in 2019-2020 to ensure the sustainability of the system.
The wealthiest place Macron far ahead
Emmanuel Macron obtained 30.7% of the votes among the richest French people, Marine Le Pen 20.8% and the rebellious leader 19.8%, according to the Harris Interactive study.
“He succeeded in the challenge of bringing together the caviar left and the liberal right.
In particular because of certain tax measures to their advantage, the reform of labor law…”, analyzes Patrick Bruneteaux.
“It is the candidate of those who are well armed in the contemporary world, which the rise in real estate prices enriches.
This has also been a constant since 2017: the more capital and culture you have, the more you adhere to Emmanuel Macron's policy, ”underlines Jérôme Sainte-Marie.
Marine Le Pen, favorite candidate of the working classes
She won 33.8% of the votes, according to the Harris Interactive study, far ahead of Jean-Luc Mélenchon (24.2%) and Emmanuel Macron (20.4%).
"She succeeded in capturing the vote of the working class, which has the impression of being the loser in the face of globalization and the deindustrialization of France", underlines Patrick Bruneteaux.
“She is the candidate for those who need state intervention to feel protected.
And of those who have the feeling of suffering the effects of immigration,” adds Jérôme Sainte-Marie.
The inactive more sensitive to the LREM candidate
It may seem surprising, but 32.4% of the inactive voted for Emmanuel Macron, 21.4% for the boss of the RN and 17.1% for the leader of rebellious France.
However, the president was the architect of the unemployment insurance reform, which tightened the conditions for compensation.
"But let's not forget that among the inactive are also mothers who do not work, retirees...", clarifies Jérôme Sainte-Marie.
“Emmanuel Macron was also able to seduce them with a reassuring speech, especially at the time of the health crisis”, adds Patrick Bruneteaux.
Macron, city candidate
An Ipsos** study shows that Macron wins 29% of the vote in towns of 200,000 or more inhabitants.
While Jean-Luc Mélenchon only gets 23% and Marine Le Pen 20%.
“It's quite logical, since the big cities concentrate a population of executives and liberal professions.
Real estate speculation has engendered social selection.
Paris also votes massively for Macron, ”notes Jérôme Sainte-Marie.
“And it must be added that the privileged populations of the big cities adhere to the economic program of the president”, explains Patrick Bruneteaux.
Le Pen, “field” candidate
Conversely, Marine Le Pen obtains 27% of the votes in municipalities with less than 2,000 inhabitants, Macron 25% and Jean-Luc Mélenchon 20%.
"She was able to seduce rural people who see public services and shops disappearing, whose purchasing power is losing ground...", notes Patrick Bruneteaux.
“It has always scored points with people who are forced to move away from cities to find accommodation.
And who pay dearly for it with the price of gasoline”, emphasizes Jérôme Sainte-Marie.
results of the 2022 presidential election
by city, department and region on 20 Minutes.
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*Harris Interactive x Toluna survey "for M6 - RTL", conducted online on April 10, on a sample of 6,523 people registered on the electoral lists, according to the quota method.
** Survey carried out by Ipsos and Sopra Steria for Francetv and radiofrance among 4,000 people registered on the electoral lists questioned from April 6 to 9.
Presidential election 2022
Marine Le Pen