The relevant person in charge of the Office of the National Forest and Grassland Fire Fighting Headquarters and the Emergency Management Department recently stated that the global weather continues to warm, and extreme weather such as high temperature, drought, and strong winds are occurring frequently and concurrently, posing great challenges to fire prevention and rescue work.
At present, my country is in a period of high incidence of forest fires.
The national natural disaster risk situation in March released by the Ministry of Emergency Management shows that in March, the temperature in most parts of the country was higher than the same period of the previous year, and the forest fire risk situation in many places in the north and south was more severe.
So, how to curb the high incidence of fires?
In the event of a fire, how to safely and efficiently "hit early, small, and dead"?
Our country is making efforts to solve the problem from many aspects.
The content has also been written into this year's government work report, which proposes to improve disaster prevention, mitigation, relief and emergency rescue capabilities, and to provide defense and meteorological services such as floods and droughts, forest and grassland fires, geological disasters, and earthquakes.
On March 17, the National Forest and Grassland Fire Fighting Headquarters held a national teleconference on forest and steppe fire fighting work, demanding that people come first and life first, better coordinate development and safety, and go all out to do a good job in forest and steppe fire fighting work. Prevent and contain major forest and grassland fires.
Fire source control difficulty upgrade
In the spring and summer of 2022, the fire risk situation in my country's forests and grasslands is generally close to normal. However, this year, the national average temperature is high, and some areas are experiencing periodic meteorological droughts. It is necessary to pay attention to the high fire risk period caused by extreme weather such as high temperature, drought and strong winds in some areas.
It is understood that in order to effectively respond to various forest and grassland fires, the Emergency Management Department has deployed a forest firefighting team to keep 18,530 people on duty at all times.
Since the beginning of this year, the national forest fire brigade has dispatched a total of 10,800 person-times and 840 vehicles to carry out special fire prevention actions in 47 prefectures (cities), 101 counties (districts), and 232 key forest area scenic spots, and seized more than 11,000 fires .
"In recent years, extreme weather has increased significantly, which has led to the continuous increase of the suddenness of forest fires and the difficulty of fighting them." Cheng Cheng, deputy chief of the Sichuan Forest Fire Brigade, said that in 2022, the forest and grassland fire prevention situation in Sichuan Province will still be very serious.
This year, the average temperature in Sichuan Province was about 0.5 degrees Celsius higher than the same period of the previous year, while the precipitation in many parts of the province was slightly lower than the same period of the normal year.
Among them, the western Sichuan area is called "Huowozi". From March to May, the fire danger meteorological level of southern Ganzi Prefecture, central and western Liangshan Prefecture, and Panzhihua Forest and Grassland is 4-5.
In spring, the fire danger level is relatively high in parts of Northeast my country, North China, Southwest China and Northwest China, while the temperature in parts of Central China and East China is high, the precipitation is obviously low, and the fire danger situation is more severe.
On the whole, the factors that cause forest fires in my country are multiple.
Among them, traditional fires are used for funerals, sacrifices and other folk customs, fires are used for agricultural activities such as burning wasteland and mountain alchemy, and fires are still used in forest and pastoral areas. With the trend of global tourism, the time for people and forests to coexist increases, and fire source management and control The difficulty has escalated, and the new challenges of the prevention and control work points are increasingly prominent.
Manage people, watch mountains, and prevent fires
At present, Sichuan Province has fully entered the critical period of forest and grassland fire prevention, and issued the "strictest fire prevention order" for the new year.
Cheng Cheng said that since last year, Sichuan's forest firefighting work has shifted more from "passive firefighting" to "active prevention and both fighting and defense".
"Do your best to 'manage people, guard mountains, and prevent fires'." Cheng Cheng said that at important time points, Sichuan Province will dispatch more than 500 fire rescue personnel every day to 35 fire rescue personnel in Panzhihua, Aba, Ganzi and Liangshan. In high-risk fire-risk areas, fire prevention services such as fire prevention propaganda, carrying equipment patrols, and card inspections are carried out, and working groups are dispatched to key fire-risk counties to carry out fire prevention inspections, instructing localities to do a good job in fire prevention and control, and plug fire prevention loopholes.
At the beginning of March, the first-quarter field training of the Yunnan Forest Fire Brigade was also fully carried out, and core capabilities were improved through simulated actual combat.
Since January, the Zhangzhou Brigade of the Longyan Detachment of the Fujian Forest Fire Brigade has used "technical defense" methods to carry out forest fire prevention inspections, which can detect hidden dangers as early as possible and try their best to stifle the fire in the cradle.
This year, the Office of the National Forest and Grassland Fire Fighting Headquarters and the Emergency Management Department will work with relevant departments to strengthen source control with more practical measures, seriously investigate and deal with forest and grassland fire cases, and investigate criminal responsibility for those who constitute crimes. Law enforcement must be strict, and violations must be punished.
At the same time, the rescue team also entered a state of full preparation.
Cheng Cheng said that as the main force and national team for forest and grassland firefighting, we must always prepare for the most difficult and complex situations, strengthen basic training and field combat training in peacetime, and constantly improve our skills; in performing tasks, we must be brave and tenacious, and dare to Go through fire and water, and use excellent techniques and tactics to minimize fire hazards.
Physical protection is also an important part of forest fire prevention.
It is reported that Sichuan Province has arranged a total of 2.067 billion yuan in fire prevention infrastructure construction funds, newly rebuilt fire protection passages of 17,000 kilometers, newly built fire pools of 25,000, and newly opened fire isolation belts of 46,000 kilometers.
Among them, in Liangshan prefecture, where the task of fire prevention is the most serious, the newly renovated fire protection passages have reached 14,000 kilometers, the newly opened fire isolation belts have reached 22,000 kilometers, and the newly built fire ponds and reservoirs have reached 24,000.
Since entering the critical period of fire prevention, 281 fire rescue personnel have carried out fire prevention duties in 13 key areas in Sichuan every day.
In addition, teams are also dispatched to the high fire risk areas for forward garrisoning. Once a fire occurs, rescuers can put it out as soon as possible.
"Three first" to "four first"
People are generally concerned about how to ensure the safety of forest fire brigade when they are retrograde for the people?
Cheng Cheng said that in this regard, Sichuan Province has specially formulated a "safety concept" for firefighting, that is, in the event of a fire, firefighting cannot blindly emphasize quick and quick solutions, but also emphasizes scientific firefighting and safety through unified command, professional command, and hierarchical command. First.
Gao Jiyong, leader of the special service brigade of the Sichuan Forest Fire Corps, said that in the past two years, Sichuan has been accelerating the improvement of the safety and efficiency of fire fighting teams, and the word "safety" has been placed in a more important position.
This year, Sichuan Province's fire fighting requirements have been officially upgraded from "three first and four no-fighting" to "four first and four no-fighting". , the new addition is "Isolation first if the vegetation is unfavorable", that is, if the vegetation on the fire site is very dense, choose a reasonable place to open an isolation zone first.
This is based on the experience summed up based on the vegetation characteristics of Sichuan, especially Liangshan, Ganzi, Aba and other high fire risk areas.
Gao Jiyong explained that the vegetation of Liangshan is mainly Yunnan pine, and Ganzi and Aba are dominated by Qinggang forest. Qinggang forest is a broad-leaved forest. The underground humus layer is very thick. Once burned, it can burn from the underground humus layer to the trunk. Even to the top of the tree, a three-dimensional burning is formed.
If the firefighters enter the forest at this time, they will be greatly threatened.
Gao Jiyong has participated in almost all the rescue work of large-scale fires in Sichuan in recent years. He was particularly impressed by the forest fire in Mianning on April 20 last year.
Taking into account safety issues, before entering the fire scene, the rescue team opened up an emergency shelter area in advance after research and judgment.
Since February this year, two forest fires have occurred in Sichuan successively, which is significantly lower than the same period of previous years.
And, compared to previous years, fires are being put out faster.
To do a good job in forest and grassland fire prevention work, the key is to hold the first "defense line".
Last year, the Emergency Management Department and relevant departments carried out a special campaign to control wild fire sources and investigate and deal with illegal use of fire, and a special campaign to investigate and control fire hazards in power transmission and distribution facilities in forest and pastoral areas. The number of fires caused by afforestation, power transmission and distribution failures, and fires used in the wild have all decreased compared with the average of the past five years.
At present, my country's spring forest and grassland fire prevention is still facing a severe and complex situation.
All localities are strictly implementing fire source control and fire management responsibilities, and learning from past forest and grassland fires, implementing fire prevention measures into actions, strengthening publicity, warning and education, and effectively creating a good society with universal fire prevention, universal supervision, and universal action. Ambience.
China Youth Daily, China Youth Daily reporter Zhao Limei Source: China Youth Daily
March 29, 2022 Version 05