The topic of "general job diversion" has been out of the circle, and it has also become one of the hot topics on education at the National Two Sessions this year.
my country's senior high school education implements "general vocational diversion", and adheres to the policy of roughly equal enrollment ratios between ordinary senior high schools and secondary vocational schools.
For decades, this policy has played an important role in popularizing high school education in my country, establishing and improving the vocational education system, and cultivating high-quality skilled workers.
However, due to the development of the times, economic transformation, social changes, and the development of education itself, the "general vocational diversion" policy in which the enrollment ratio of ordinary high school and vocational high school education in my country is roughly the same, has faced more and more severe challenges. This policy has become a major choice that my country's public education policy has to make.
This year's government work report clearly pointed out that "improving the conditions for running schools in vocational education and improving the school-running system integrating production and education" has put forward new requirements for vocational education.
In response to the issue of "general job diversion", some deputies believe that the "general job diversion" model of senior high school education is facing increasingly severe challenges.
They suggested that "general vocational diversion" should not be roughly equivalent, but to strengthen publicity and guidance, improve the social acceptance and recognition of vocational education, actively explore a new development model of "general vocational integration", establish and improve the vocational education college entrance examination system, and speed up the development of vocational education. Develop vocational education at the undergraduate level.
"General job diversion" cannot evolve into eliminating education
"General job diversion" cannot evolve into eliminating education
Speaking of the challenges faced by the "general job diversion" policy, Zhang Zhiyong, deputy to the National People's Congress, director of the Central Education Committee for Democratic Progress, and executive director of the China Education Policy Research Institute of Beijing Normal University, said that after investigation, it was found that the "general job diversion" policy at the senior high school level has been It has become one of the important reasons for parental education anxiety.
"In the opinion of some parents, the 'general job diversion' policy has caused the pressure of competition to enter higher schools to move further down to junior high schools and even primary schools."
To this end, Zhang Zhiyong provided a set of data.
A survey by the China Institute of Education and Social Development of Beijing Normal University found that 30.2% of parents do not want their children to go to vocational schools.
During the survey, Hu Wei, member of the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference and deputy director of the Science and Technology Education Committee of the Shanghai Municipal Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference, also felt the anxiety of his parents.
He learned that "general job diversion" is considered by many parents to be the "elimination" of their children to secondary vocational schools during the middle school entrance examination, which makes parents full of "general job diversion panic".
"This has intensified the competition in the senior high school entrance examination and seriously affected the implementation of the 'double reduction' target in the compulsory education stage."
Zhang Zhiyong found in the survey that the people's recognition of secondary vocational education is generally not high.
Many parents have a strong "stereotype" of secondary vocational education, and believe that compared with ordinary high schools, vocational schools often face problems such as small school scale, low investment, and weak "double-qualified" teachers, which affect vocational schools. school quality.
He said that parents have a low degree of recognition of the learning atmosphere of vocational schools, children's growth environment and future prospects, and believe that attending vocational schools is a last resort for learning "underachievers" and "poor students", and it is a kind of elimination that ordinary high schools do not want. educate.
Not only is the recognition of vocational schools not high by parents, but Hu Wei also found that because "general vocational diversion" has evolved into elimination education, teachers and students in many secondary vocational schools have increasingly reduced their recognition of secondary vocational education, which has a direct impact. quality of secondary vocational schools.
Hu Wei provided a set of data: 5.8243 million students enrolled in secondary vocational education in 2017, and 4.8487 million graduates in 2020. "This means that nearly 1 million secondary vocational students did not successfully complete their studies."
He found through investigation that fewer and fewer students enter the job market directly after graduating from secondary vocational schools. Over the years, the proportion of graduates from secondary vocational schools nationwide has been about half, and even more than 80% in some regions.
Zhang Zhiyong said that some parents believe that the "general job diversion" policy at the high school level deprives children of the right to receive regular high schools on an equal footing.
Junior high school students are too young and their minds are immature, and their psychological tolerance for being eliminated by ordinary high school education is limited. Premature diversion will seriously damage students' self-confidence and be detrimental to their physical and mental growth.
"After compulsory education, the 'universal vocational' distribution is generally enforced according to the general vocational ratio, which restricts the right of some children to receive ordinary high school education, which is very unfair to these children."
In fact, the current secondary vocational education has shifted from employment education to further education, "this has deviated from the employment-oriented vocational education orientation."
Zhang Zhiyong also believes that economic and social development has put forward higher requirements for the quality of skilled talents.
For economically developed regions, the development focus of secondary vocational education is no longer on scale expansion, but on quality improvement and level-up.
If we adhere to the policy of "general job diversion", which is roughly equivalent at the senior high school stage, it will seriously restrict the rapid improvement of the level of human resource development in developed regions.
At the same time, Hu Wei said that from the perspective of my country's industrial development, the gap rate of skilled talents will reach 48% by 2025, and the gap of technical blue-collar workers will be as high as 30 million.
Therefore, we must attach importance to the development of vocational education.
"It needs to be emphasized that in the context of the popularization of higher education, the technical blue-collar workers that the society needs are no longer technical workers with only secondary vocational education, but basically those with higher vocational education or above." Hu Wei said that now At this stage, the significance of adopting the "general vocational diversion" method for high school education to specialize in secondary vocational education is not as meaningful as it used to be.
Switching from "post-junior high school" to "post-high school" is an inevitable choice
Switching from "post-junior high school" to "post-high school" is an inevitable choice
Zhang Zhiyong told a reporter from China Youth Daily and China Youth Daily that adjusting and improving my country's "general job diversion" policy has become a major education public policy issue that has been appealed and paid attention to by all walks of life.
Zhang Zhiyong suggested that parents should respect their choice of general education and vocational education.
All localities should start from the needs of education, economic and social development, and the acceptance of vocational education by the people, and do not engage in "one size fits all" in the enrollment ratio of ordinary high schools and vocational high schools.
It is necessary to incorporate the development of industry-education integration into the overall economic and social development plan, speed up the reform of vocational education, vigorously promote order training, deepen school-enterprise cooperation, and integrate industry and education, improve the level of vocational education, and enhance the attractiveness of vocational education.
At the same time, it is necessary to strengthen publicity and guidance, reverse the stereotype of vocational education in the society, and improve the social acceptance and recognition of vocational education.
"Actively support the implementation of intra-school diversion in general high school education, and explore cooperation between senior three and higher vocational colleges in running schools." Zhang Zhiyong said that high school students finish the compulsory courses in the second year of senior high school, pass the college entrance examination for their academic level, and meet the academic requirements for high school graduation. Students who have difficulty in entering undergraduate colleges and universities to receive higher education can explore the cooperation between senior three and higher vocational colleges according to the principle of voluntariness of students and their parents. With the support, professional basic courses and vocational and technical courses are set up.
With the continuous development of my country's economy and society, in the context of the transformation of the manufacturing industry to high-end, the market has higher and higher requirements for the training level of technical talents. .
Zhang Zhiyong suggested that the focus of "general vocational diversion" should be gradually shifted upward, and vocational education at the higher education stage should be used as the main supply of technical and skilled talents.
The country can try it out in areas where conditions permit, and then promote it nationwide when conditions are ripe.
Hu Wei believes that it is necessary to actively explore the new development model of "general vocational integration". On the basis of the pilot, more high schools will be gradually established as comprehensive high schools. A comprehensive high school with characteristics focusing on skills training.
"Doing this will help achieve mutual penetration and deep integration between general education and vocational education, greatly enrich high school curriculum resources, and expand students' high school curriculum choices, thereby raising the 'five education' to a higher level." He said.
He suggested that the comprehensive high school credit system should be gradually implemented. In various comprehensive high schools, the credits of common academic courses and skill courses that students must choose can be stipulated, and students are allowed to choose other common academic courses according to their whereabouts after high school graduation. Courses and Skills Courses.
"High school students can directly apply for higher vocational education institutions with credits of skill courses, and are exempted from taking corresponding course credits." He said that on this basis, the requirement for "equivalent to general occupation" for high school students in the future can be changed to require comprehensive high schools The ratio of general academic courses to skills courses should be roughly equal.
Hu Wei suggested that the vocational education college entrance examination system should be established and improved. While promoting the integration of senior high school and general vocational education, we should also promote the training of skilled talents in ordinary undergraduate colleges and universities through the vocational education college entrance examination. , in order to fully expand the choice of the educated.
"It is particularly important that the vocational education college entrance examination should pay more attention to process evaluation and value-added evaluation, and establish and improve a multiple evaluation system."
In addition, he also believes that it is necessary to steadily promote the merger and reorganization of general high schools and secondary vocational schools, encourage and support qualified areas (such as Shanghai, Jiangsu, Zhejiang) to take the lead in the first trial, and promote the merger of existing general high schools and secondary vocational schools. Work with restructuring to accelerate the development of new comprehensive high schools.
On the basis of promoting the balanced development of comprehensive high schools in various regions, the relevant state departments have created conditions to include high school education into compulsory education, and gradually abolish the high school entrance examination system and the "general vocational diversion" model, so as to realize the integrated development of general vocational education and improve the people's interest in education services. Gain, happiness and security.
In recent years, the Democratic Progressive Central Committee has also attached great importance to the issue of "general vocational diversion". In this year's proposal, the Democratic Progressive Central Committee suggested that the distinction between general vocational education should be diluted and the concept of diversion should be blurred. Type development, opening up the conversion channel between general education and vocational education.
The Democratic Progressive Central Committee suggested that in addition to the ordinary high school curriculum, vocational application courses can be set up and corresponding curriculum standards, graduation requirements and examination systems can be formulated to provide all senior high school students with the opportunity to learn ordinary courses and vocational skills courses, so that students can learn according to their own needs. Interested in choosing courses.
On this basis, realize the talent training model of mutual selection of courses, mutual recognition of credits, mutual transfer of student status, and two-way flow between secondary vocational and general high schools, so that students can adjust and switch between secondary vocational and general high schools in a timely manner.
The Democratic Progressive Central Committee encourages ordinary colleges and universities to incorporate vocational application courses into their admissions requirements.
In this way, we can comprehensively improve the scientific knowledge level and basic vocational skills of high school graduates in our country.
The Democratic Progressive Center also suggested that vocational education should improve the ascending channel, expand the enrollment ratio of vocational education undergraduates in national undergraduate education, and greatly increase the enrollment indicators for secondary vocational students in undergraduate higher education, especially applied undergraduate colleges.
China Youth Daily, China Youth Daily reporter Li Huaxi Source: China Youth DailyKeywords: