A new ultra-strong cosmic ray scan of the Great Pyramid of Giza, Egypt, can reveal the nature of two mysterious voids inside the pyramid for the first time in 4,500 years.

The largest of these two spaces is located directly above the Great Portico - a passageway leading to what may be the chamber of Pharaoh Khufu - and is about 30 meters long and 6 meters high, according to previous pyramid surveys.

According to a report published on the "Live Science" website, archaeologists are not sure what they will find in the void, which may be one large area or several small rooms.

They also hope to know the function of this void;

The most fascinating possibility is that the pit is Khufu's hidden burial chamber. Another less important possibility is that the cavity played some role in the construction of the pyramid.

Project "Skan Pyramids"

Built for Pharaoh Khufu (circa 2551-2528 BC), the Great Pyramid of Giza is the largest pyramid built in ancient Egypt and the only surviving wonder of the ancient world.

Between 2015 and 2017, the Scan Pyramids project conducted a series of surveys that analyzed muons - cosmic particles that regularly fall to Earth - to detect any voids.

Those scans revealed both voids in 2017.

The researchers used the latest techniques in the field of surveying, muon radiography, cosmic AKA particles, thermal imaging using infrared radiation, photogrammetry, scanning and 3D reconstruction, to penetrate the heart of the largest of the Egyptian pyramids without excavation.

Scientists from the "Pyramids Population" project revealed two previously unknown voids in the Great Pyramid in research published in November 2017 in the journal "Nature". Previous scans also revealed a second, much smaller void, directly behind the north face of the pyramid, and the purpose From it is not clear.

Exploration using muon particles ("Scan Pyramids" project)

Scan the Great Pyramid again

A new team plans to survey the Great Pyramid again, but this time with a more powerful system that analyzes muons in more detail.

Muons are negatively charged elementary particles that form when cosmic rays collide with atoms in the Earth's atmosphere.

These high-energy particles are constantly falling on the ground (and are harmless);

Because they behave differently when interacting with stone versus air, researchers can use ultra-sensitive detectors to identify particles and pinpoint areas they can't explore from the inside, as is the case with the Great Pyramid.

"We plan to put a telescope system in the field that has a sensitivity 100 times greater than the equipment recently used at the Great Pyramid," a team of scientists wrote in a paper published on the preprint server (arXiv).

Electronic publishing (pre-print) of scientific papers and papers on pre-print servers allows the scientific community immediate and accurate examination of the papers, but so far the research has not been reviewed by other scientists (by peer review).

Preparing the telescope for muon imaging technology to penetrate the heart of the pyramid without drilling ("Scan Pyramids" project)

The project needs financing

"Because the proposed reagents are too large, they cannot be placed inside the pyramid, so our approach is to place them outside and move them along the base. In this way, we can collect muons from all angles in order to build the required data set," the team wrote.

"Using very large muon telescopes placed outside the Great Pyramid can produce high-resolution images," Alan Bruce, a scientist at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory who was involved in the research, told Live Science in an email. Due to the large number of discovered muons.

The researchers noted that the detectors are so sensitive that they may detect the presence of artifacts inside the voids, and add, "If a few cubic meters are filled with materials such as pottery, metal, stone or wood, we should be able to distinguish between that and air."

This 3D rendering shows the hidden structure inside the Great Pyramid of Giza (Getty Images)

The team obtained approval from the Egyptian Ministry of Tourism and Antiquities to conduct the surveys, but it still needed funds to build the equipment and place it next to the Great Pyramid.

"We are looking for sponsors for the entire project," Bruce said.

"Once we get the full funding, we think it will take about two years to build the detectors," he added.

At the moment, the group only has enough funding to run simulations and design some prototypes."