China News Service, Beijing, March 9th (Ren Jing) From breaking the head to the "gathering place for poor students", what happened to vocational education?

After the "roller coaster" development, with the deepening of education reform, where should vocational education go?

Many deputies to the National People's Congress and members of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference gave suggestions.

In the 2022 National Postgraduate Admissions Examination, candidates will enter a certain test center.

Photo by China News Agency reporter Zhang Yuan

Once "general college admissions are dissatisfied, vocational schools are popular"

  The "Decision on Educational System Reform" issued in 1985 pointed out that it is necessary to gradually establish a vocational and technical education system ranging from elementary to advanced, supporting the industry, having a reasonable structure and communicating with general education.

  In the 1980s and 1990s, due to the large demand for employment and the wide employment market, secondary vocational schools were once sought after, and even the situation of "general high school recruitment dissatisfied, vocational schools became popular", Shandong, Beijing, Shanghai and other places took the lead in pilot projects, and put general high school Change to a vocational high school or run a vocational high school in Pugao.

  However, with the development and changes of the economy, society and education industry, the situation of vocational schools is also constantly changing.

Now "the gap between ordinary undergraduate and vocational undergraduate enrollment is 100 times"

  According to the "2021 National Education Statistics Main Results" released by the Ministry of Education recently, in 2021, there will be 4,446,000 general undergraduate students and 41,400 vocational undergraduate students; 18,931,000 general undergraduate students and 129,300 vocational undergraduate students. There is a hundredfold difference between the two.

  "When I was in school, my family didn't let me play with people from secondary schools, saying they were poor students." Chen Xi (pseudonym) told

There are not a few people who hold this kind of cognition or concept, so many parents would rather pay a high price to send their children to the general high school.

  Some voices believe that the "general vocational diversion policy" (that is, the implementation of general vocational diversion in high school education, and the policy that the enrollment ratio of ordinary high schools and secondary vocational schools is roughly equal) is facing challenges: the passage of vocational education is not smooth, resulting in students losing entry. Opportunities for key colleges and universities; and the orientation of further studies makes secondary vocational education deviated from the orientation of employment.

The picture shows the scene of a campus recruitment activity, and the crowd of students applying for jobs is surging.

(Data map) Photo by Liu Zhankun

It is suggested that the "rigid diversion" of general vocational education should turn to "flexible diversion"

  The Central Committee of the Democratic Progressive believes that the proportion of the "general job diversion policy" is not in line with the actual development of regional economic and social development and education itself.

For the developed eastern regions, the development focus of secondary vocational education is no longer on scale expansion, but on quality improvement and level-up.

  In this regard, the Democratic Progressive Central Committee suggested that the "rigid diversion" should be shifted to a "flexible diversion".

All localities should start from the needs of education, economic and social development, and the acceptance of vocational education by the people, and do not adopt a one-size-fits-all approach to the enrollment ratio of ordinary high schools and secondary vocational schools.

Provinces and cities where conditions permit can carry out "general vocational" diversion after high school, shift the focus of diversion up, and take vocational education at the higher education stage as the main supply of technical and skilled talents.

  Lu Xiaoguang, a member of the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference, suggested that after all the basic subjects in the second year of senior high school have been completed and the examinations have been completed, they should be divided into ordinary classes and vocational classes. According to different education plans, the potential and skills of children should be fully explored and cultivated.

  He believes that students who are diverted to secondary vocational education after graduation from junior high school have insufficient basic subject education, which makes it difficult to further improve their skills, and is not conducive to the growth and development of adolescent children.

The extension of vocational education to after high school is more conducive to cultivating high-quality skilled workers.

"Common vocational integration, so that secondary vocational schools can also be admitted to Tsinghua and other schools"

  During the two sessions, in view of the future development of vocational education, many deputies pointed out that it is necessary to promote "common vocational integration".

  Ma Guangyu, a member of the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference, believes that the integration of general vocational education, the realization of sharing and interaction, the implementation of quality education, the improvement of students' learning, practice and innovation capabilities, the satisfaction of the needs of lifelong development of talents, and the diverse development needs of social talents are the urgent needs of today's educational development.

  Hu Wei, a member of the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference, pointed out that vocational education has been stigmatized for a long time and is considered to be "education for the losers".

Vocational education must get rid of the relatively narrow predicament. One is to integrate horizontally, to achieve the integrated development of vocational education, general education and academic education, and the other is to unblock the vertical flow of skilled talents.

Vocational education college entrance examination system should be established to become an enrollment channel for undergraduate vocational colleges. It is not excluded that technical skills majors in prestigious schools such as Tsinghua University and Jiaotong University can also select students through the vocational education college entrance examination.

  The Central Committee of the Democratic Progressive even suggested that the distinction between general vocational and general vocational education should be diluted, and the concept of diversion should be blurred to provide all students in high school with the opportunity to learn general courses and vocational skills courses. The talent training model of recognition, exchange of student status, and two-way flow allows students to adjust and switch between secondary vocational and general high school in a timely manner.

Encourage ordinary colleges and universities to incorporate vocational application courses into their admissions requirements.

  Hu Wei also said that in order to improve the status of vocational education in China, it is very important to enable vocational education graduates to enjoy the same treatment as ordinary school graduates in terms of employment, settlement, salary and other aspects, so as to reverse our view of vocational education. Educational awareness to ease parents' anxiety.