Xinhua News Agency, Beijing, March 2. Question: How is the wheat managed?
Are the seeds guaranteed?
Are there enough farm machines?
——Perspective on the key issues of national spring agricultural production
Xinhua News Agency reporters Yu Wenjing, Hou Wenkun and Ye Jing
At present, the country has gradually entered the busy season of spring ploughing and spring management preparation from south to north.
Southwest winter wheat is jointing and booting, Jianghuai and southern Huanghuai are turning green one after another, and the central and northern Huanghuai, North China, and northwest are still overwintering; South China early rice has begun to soak and raise seedlings.
Last year, the north suffered a rare autumn flood. How to manage 110 million mu of late-sown winter wheat?
To stabilize food rations, stabilize corn, expand soybeans, and expand oil crops this year, how can technology guarantee demand?
The reporter conducted an interview on this a few days ago.
Wheat: Seize the Three Key Periods
Located in Bincheng District, Binzhou City, Shandong Province, in the North Shandong Plain, Zhang Hu, the technical consultant of Guosheng Agricultural Technology Co., Ltd., is responsible for managing 6,000 mu of land.
Autumn floods delayed the planting of winter wheat.
Recently, he went to the field to check almost every day, and was going to take measures such as maintaining moisture and suppressing, increasing the application of foliar fertilizer, etc. to promote the transformation of seedlings.
Liu Lihua, deputy director of the Plantation Management Department of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, said that affected by the rare autumn flood, 110 million mu of wheat in the five provinces of Hebei, Shanxi, Shandong, Henan and Shaanxi were sown late for about half a month, accounting for one-third of the wheat sown area.
Although the area of winter wheat is basically the same as last year after hard work, the growth of seedlings is complicated, and it faces challenges to win a bumper summer grain harvest.
Summer grain is the first season of annual grain production, accounting for one-fifth of the annual grain output and 40% of the ration. It is of great significance for ensuring supply, stabilizing expectations, and increasing confidence.
Liu Lihua said that there are still 100 days before the large-scale harvest of winter wheat.
At present, the most important thing is to seize the three key growth periods of wheat turning green, jointing and grain filling: in the turning green stage, focus on increasing the turning green fertilizer to increase the number of panicles of weak seedlings; in the rising and jointing stage, focus on drought resistance and frost resistance, promoting growth and increasing the number of grains; During the grouting period, focus on the implementation of "one spray and three defenses" to increase grain weight.
At present, the agricultural and rural system has organized a large number of forces to sink to the front line, including provincial and rural areas, and strengthening precise guidance services.
The relevant research institutes of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences formed 30 scientific and technological teams to go to the main wheat-producing provinces and regions to carry out scientific and technological assistance for the harvest of summer grains.
In the next step, the agricultural and rural sectors will focus on disaster prevention and mitigation.
Focus on preventing disasters such as late spring cold, spring drought, and hot and dry wind, further refine the plan, and make material reserves and technical preparations; focus on preventing and controlling wheat stripe rust, scab, ear aphids, etc., and vigorously promote unified control and joint prevention and control. , Insect mouths grab food and ensure a bumper harvest.
Seeds: Breeding and supervision go hand in hand
Farming takes the seed first.
This year, my country requires to ensure that the sown area of grain is stable and the output remains above 1.3 trillion kilograms.
Vigorously develop soybean oil crops, and promote the compound planting of soybean and corn strips.
How can "small seeds" support new agricultural demands?
Yang Haisheng, deputy director of the Seed Industry Management Department of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, said that the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs carried out timely seed supply and demand scheduling, analysis and judgment, and strengthened the guarantee of provenance of spring crops, especially soybean oilseeds.
The supply of seeds for sowing crops in spring and summer this year is generally sufficient, and soybean oilseeds can meet the demand for plant expansion. However, there is a structural shortage of soybean varieties in some areas, and the prices of individual varieties of seeds have risen.
It is understood that the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs has timely carried out supply and demand scheduling for soybean oilseeds and corn-soybean ribbon compound planting seeds.
Strengthen the dynamic monitoring of key areas and key markets, regularly release market prices, guide farmers to select and purchase seeds, and carry out seed adjustment and transportation in a timely manner.
"This year, we will strive to increase policy and financial support, improve the ability of soybean oil seed source guarantee, increase support for soybean oil seed production bases, and moderately expand the number." Yang Haisheng said that this year, a new round of joint breeding will be deployed to tackle key problems. Soybean oil varieties are included in the research scope, and a batch of new varieties suitable for current production needs are cultivated as soon as possible.
At the same time, my country will deploy special actions to strictly investigate illegal activities such as the production and sale of counterfeit and shoddy brands, and counterfeit infringement, and focus on corn, rice, soybeans, vegetables and other crop seeds to deploy nationwide inspections of the crop seed market in spring 2022 .
Agricultural machinery: strengthen the guarantee of practical and efficient machinery and tools
In the farmland of Zhengzhuang Village, Qifang Town, Zaoyang City, Hubei Province, five unmanned subsoilers were running happily, preparing for the upcoming sowing of spring peanuts and spring corn.
"These five subsoilers are all equipped with Beidou positioning system, which is accurate and efficient." said Shen Hui, head of the Shunhui Agricultural Machinery Professional Cooperative in Zaoyang City. There are more than 80 such unmanned subsoilers in the cooperative.
Mechanized troops are the main force in spring agricultural production.
It is estimated that more than 22 million units (sets) of agricultural machinery and equipment such as tractors, plowing machines, seeders, rice breeding and transplanting machines will be put into production this spring, helping farmers to farm easily and scientifically.
Wang Jiayun, deputy director of the Agricultural Mechanization Management Department of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, said that this year's spring ploughing and plowing agricultural machinery has been ready, showing the characteristics of precise and intelligent equipment, green and efficient promotion technology, and socialized agricultural machinery operation services.
By the end of last year, there were 600,000 agricultural machinery equipment with Beidou positioning operation terminals nationwide, boosting high-quality operations.
Green efficiency is the highlight.
In the southern rice region, this year, the agricultural and rural departments will focus on the shortcomings of rice transplanting mechanization, highlighting "mechanical seedling raising", and focusing on solving the problems of tight stubble in double-cropping rice production areas and being susceptible to the cold spring and cold dew wind; promote the simultaneous side of machine transplanting. Deep fertilization and other supporting technologies are used to achieve fertilizer saving and efficiency improvement and green production.
In the Northeast region, this year, we will continue to promote conservation tillage, and promote the use of straw-covered no-tillage planters and equipment, so as to promote the protection of cultivated land and the stability and increase of grain production.
How to promote agricultural machinery to provide guarantee for the development of soybean oil?
Wang Jiayun said that this year, we will adhere to the combination of transformation and use unconventional work efforts to do everything possible to ensure soybean oil production equipment and equipment to ensure good planting, management and harvesting.
It is understood that the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs has instructed relevant provinces to start the pilot project of subsidy for the purchase of new agricultural machinery products, release the list of soybean and corn ribbon compound planting equipment included in the pilot to the society, and will organize a national on-site mechanization of soybean and corn ribbon compound planting and hold training.
This year, it will focus on supporting special equipment such as grain drying, crawler operation, soybean and corn ribbon compound planting, and rapeseed harvesting, so as to consolidate the equipment foundation for a bumper harvest throughout the year.Keywords: