Draw on the wisdom of history and illuminate the way forward

——Remarks by State Councilor Wang Yi at the 50th Anniversary Commemorative Meeting of the Shanghai Communiqué

(February 28, 2022, by video)

  Dear Secretary Li Qiang,

  Dear Dr. Kissinger,

  Dear friends and distinguished guests:

  It is a great pleasure to attend the 50th anniversary of the publication of the "Shanghai Communiqué". Together with people from all walks of life in China and the United States, I will review the ice-breaking process, summarize historical experience, and enlighten the way forward.

I would like to congratulate the convening of the meeting!

  Today, 50 years ago, at the Jin Jiang Hotel in Shanghai, where everyone was staying, China and the United States jointly issued the "Shanghai Communiqué", ending the long-term isolation between the two countries and starting the process of normalizing Sino-US relations.

This means that two major powers with different social systems are willing to coexist peacefully, marking a pattern of changes in international relations.

  Under the guidance of the spirit of the "Shanghai Communiqué", Sino-US relations have made a series of major progress.

The two countries that once fought each other have established 50 pairs of sister provinces and states and 233 pairs of sister cities.

Before the outbreak of the new crown pneumonia, there were more than 300 flights between China and the United States every week, and more than 5 million passengers crossed the oceans each year.

The Sino-US economic and trade relationship, which was once negligible, has grown to a scale of US$750 billion in bilateral trade and US$240 billion in two-way investment.

From combating terrorism, coping with the financial crisis, and preventing the Ebola virus, to promoting the signing of the comprehensive agreement on the Iranian nuclear issue, and leading to the conclusion of the Paris Agreement on climate change, China-US cooperation has accomplished one major event after another that is beneficial to the world.

  Do not forget to dig wells when drinking water.

At this moment, we would like to pay high tribute to Chairman Mao Zedong, Premier Zhou Enlai, President Nixon, Dr. Kissinger and other leaders of the older generation of China and the United States!

I would like to express my heartfelt thanks to people from all walks of life who have been committed to China-US friendly cooperation for a long time!


  The Sino-US relationship initiated by the "Shanghai Communiqué" has gone through ups and downs for half a century.

Accurately grasping the spirit of the "Shanghai Communiqué" will help us to see clearly why Sino-US relations can melt ice and eliminate obstacles, and understand how Sino-US relations can move forward.

  History tells us that by following the trend of the times, we can make correct strategic choices.

The publication of the "Shanghai Communiqué" shocked and changed the world.

The leaders of the older generation of the two countries have insight into the expectations of countries around the world for easing international tensions, conform to the wishes of the Chinese and American people for peace and friendship between the two countries, and with great political courage, they have crossed the world's vastest ocean and achieved a historic victory. shake hands.

Half a century has passed, and the fundamental logic that brings the two countries closer to each other has not changed.

  History tells us that the peaceful coexistence of countries with different social systems can be achieved by insisting on seeking common ground while reserving differences.

The "Shanghai Communiqué" preserves the disagreements held by the two sides, thus making the consensus reached by the two countries more meaningful.

This initiative in the history of diplomacy also provides a useful reference for the establishment and development of relations between countries with different systems.

The leaders of the older generation of the two countries realized that although China and the United States have differences, they have not changed each other's intentions.

This is an important spirit embodied in the "Shanghai Communiqué", which is still valid today 50 years later.

  History tells us that adhering to the basic norms of international relations can build a real guardrail for Sino-US relations.

The Taiwan question is the core of the "Shanghai Communiqué", and the one-China principle is the cornerstone of Sino-US relations.

The "Shanghai Communiqué" emphasizes that all countries, regardless of their social system, must abide by the principles of respecting the sovereignty and territorial integrity of each country, non-aggression, non-interference in other countries' internal affairs, equality and mutual benefit, and peaceful coexistence.

This fully reflects the purposes and principles of the UN Charter, which worked in the past, are applicable now, and will be used even more in the future.


  China-US relations are currently facing severe challenges that are rare since the establishment of diplomatic relations, and it has also aroused serious concerns in the international community that the world is falling into divisions.

An important reason for this situation is that the principles and spirit established by the "Shanghai Communiqué" have not been effectively followed.

  Once again, China and the United States need to make a historic choice: to continue peaceful coexistence, or to move towards conflict and confrontation?

Should we insist on open cooperation, or return to isolation and confrontation?

The correct answer is actually contained in the "Shanghai Communiqué".

  In November last year, President Xi Jinping held a video meeting with President Biden, and put forward the three principles of mutual respect, peaceful coexistence and win-win cooperation, and clarified the framework for the future direction of China-US relations.

President Biden responded positively and stated that he does not seek to fight a "new Cold War", does not seek to change China's system, does not seek to oppose China by strengthening alliances, does not support "Taiwan independence", and has no intention of conflict with China.

  The above-mentioned important consensus reached by the two heads of state is not only the inheritance and promotion of historical experience, but also the development and innovation in line with the trend of the times.

We urge the U.S. side to resume a rational and pragmatic China policy, and work with the Chinese side to implement the consensus reached by the two heads of state and the remarks made by President Biden, so as to bring China-U.S. relations back on track at an early date.

  First, we must adhere to the one-China principle and consolidate the political foundation of China-US relations.

Taiwan has been an inalienable part of China's territory since ancient times.

In 1943, the heads of China, Britain and the United States issued the Cairo Declaration, which clearly stipulated that the Chinese territory stolen by Japan, including Taiwan and the Penghu Islands, should be returned to China.

In 1945, the Potsdam Proclamation, aimed at ending World War II, reaffirmed that the provisions of the Cairo Declaration would be implemented.

All these clearly show that the international community does not have any disputes over China's territorial sovereignty over Taiwan.

Taiwan has also returned to the embrace of the motherland in accordance with the law.

  As a legacy of China's civil war and interference from external forces such as the United States, the two sides of the Taiwan Strait have long been caught in a special situation of political confrontation.

However, China's national sovereignty and territorial integrity have never been divided, the fact that the mainland and Taiwan belong to the same China has never changed, and the efforts of all Chinese sons and daughters to pursue the reunification of the motherland have never stopped.

  In 1971, the United States affirmed to China that it was willing to pursue new principles on the Taiwan issue, including the United States' recognition that there is only one China in the world and that Taiwan is a part of China; Will not support any "Taiwan independence" movement.

During President Nixon's visit to China in 1972, he confirmed the above principles to Premier Zhou Enlai.

This is how the "Shanghai Communiqué" was born.

  The "Shanghai Communiqué" clearly stated that the United States recognizes that all Chinese on both sides of the Taiwan Strait believe that there is only one China and that Taiwan is a part of China. The U.S. government has no objection to this position.

In the "Communiqué on the Establishment of Diplomatic Relations" issued by China and the United States in 1978, the United States recognized that there is only one China in the world, Taiwan is a part of China, and the government of the People's Republic of China is the only legitimate government of China.

The two sides signed the "August 17 Communiqué" in 1982, in which the United States pledged that it has no intention of infringing upon China's sovereignty and territorial integrity, or interfering in China's internal affairs, or implementing the "two Chinas" or "one China, one Taiwan" policy.

At the same time, the United States solemnly declares that the United States does not seek to implement a long-term policy of arms sales to Taiwan, and will gradually reduce arms sales to Taiwan and finally resolve this issue after a period of time.

  However, shortly after the establishment of diplomatic relations between China and the United States, the United States promulgated the so-called "Taiwan Relations Act", and later put forward the so-called "six guarantees to Taiwan" internally.

These two things were unilaterally concocted by the United States, which violated the commitments made by the United States in the three Sino-US joint communiqués, and violated the one-China principle established by the United Nations General Assembly Resolution 2758 and generally observed by the international community. It was illegal and invalid to begin with.

  As a relationship between countries, Sino-US relations can only be based on the consensus reached by the two countries, that is, on the basis of the three Sino-US joint communiqués, rather than the domestic laws or unilateral policies of the United States.

This is a common international rule and a basic principle of international relations.

The United States cannot place domestic law above international law.

  Looking back on this history, the facts of the Taiwan issue are clear, and the latitude and longitude of one China is clear.

History cannot be tampered with, and right and wrong cannot be distorted.

The United States should return to the original meaning of the one-China principle, abide by its political commitments to China, undertake international obligations that should be fulfilled, stop hollowing out the one-China principle, stop condoning and supporting "Taiwan independence", and stop planning to "use Taiwan to control China". In this way, we can truly maintain peace and stability across the Taiwan Strait and maintain the overall situation of China-US relations.

  Second, we must uphold mutual respect and keep China-US relations in the right direction.

No matter in the past, present or future, China and the United States will be two countries with great differences in social systems, history and culture. This is a fact that no one can change, and it is also a manifestation of the diversity of human civilization.

Both sides should view China-US relations from a broader perspective and a more inclusive attitude, insist on dialogue rather than confrontation, cooperation rather than conflict, openness rather than closure, and integration rather than decoupling.

  China's social system and development path are the firm choice and collective will of the 1.4 billion Chinese people, and are inevitable in China's historical development and evolution.

China respects the American social system and never bets on the United States to lose. It hopes that the United States will continue to be open and confident, and maintain development and progress.

Similarly, the United States should also respect China's development path, welcome a peaceful, stable and prosperous China, abandon the myth of zero-sum game, let go of the obsession with containing China, break through the shackles of "political correctness", and truly regard China as a A partner in development, not an enemy in a power game.

  The mainstream of Sino-US relations should be cooperation, and the definition of competition is a generalization.

Even in competition, there must be boundaries. Based on fair and recognized international rules, it will not only make the country faster and stronger, but also make all countries more united to move towards the future together.

Even if there is competition, it should be compared to who can govern their country better and who can contribute more to the world.

  Third, we must adhere to win-win cooperation and promote the development and prosperity of China and the United States.

At present, both China and the United States are facing a new development situation.

China is committed to achieving high-quality development and common prosperity, and the United States is focusing on revitalizing the middle class. Cooperation is the best choice for both sides.

The world is big enough to fully accommodate the development of China and the United States. We also expect the two countries to be committed to a win-win situation and win-win situation with other countries.

  China is willing to work with the U.S. side to give play to each other's comparative advantages, expand practical cooperation in the fields of economy, trade, investment, energy, and infrastructure, and continuously expand the list of cooperation between the two countries.

China will continue to deepen reforms in an all-round way, share China's development opportunities with the world with a shorter negative list, a better business environment, and greater institutional opening up, and welcome American companies to more actively integrate into the dual-cycle development pattern.

The United States should also set an example for building an open world economy, take the lead in abiding by international economic and trade rules, and provide a fair, just and non-discriminatory market environment for companies from all countries, including China.

  The friendship between countries lies in the people-to-people friendship, and people-to-people and cultural exchanges are a bridge to promote mutual understanding between the two peoples.

We should promote contacts, exchanges and cooperation at all levels in various fields, strengthen mutual exchanges between local provinces, states, cities, and between the people of the two countries, think tanks, media, enterprises, etc. friendly bond between them.

  Fourth, we must adhere to the responsibility of a major country and provide more public goods to the world.

Global challenges require global cooperation, and both China and the United States should shoulder the responsibilities of major powers and play their role as major powers.

  The two countries can work together to provide more vaccines to developing countries such as Africa to form an "immune barrier" and help the world overcome the epidemic.

Maintain macroeconomic policy coordination, add confidence and resilience to the global economy, and promote a deeper and more solid post-pandemic recovery.

The two sides can also jointly tackle the climate crisis, maintain a safe border for nature, and achieve global green, low-carbon and sustainable development.

We are open to the U.S. participating in the Belt and Road Initiative and the global development initiative, and are willing to consider coordinating with the U.S. "Building a Better World" initiative to provide the world with more high-quality public goods.

  In the "Shanghai Communiqué", China and the United States jointly stated that neither party should seek hegemony in the Asia-Pacific region.

This article is still relevant today.

China will not seek any hegemony in the past, now and in the future, and the US should do the same.

The Asia-Pacific region is the region where the interests of China and the United States are most closely intertwined, and it is also the region where the two countries interact most frequently. It should be a demonstration field for the two sides to build mutual trust and cooperation, not a back garden for one party to seek spheres of influence, nor a arena for confrontation and conflict between the two countries.

The United States should stop engaging in camp confrontation and closing exclusive circles in the region, and work with China and other countries in the region to build an Asia-Pacific family of openness, inclusiveness, innovation and growth, connectivity, and win-win cooperation.

  Dear friends, distinguished guests!

  The Chinese and American people are great people.

Since the door of Sino-US relations has been opened, it should not be closed again.

Now that the world has emerged from the Cold War, the Iron Curtain should no longer be lowered.

Standing at a new historical starting point, we should draw more wisdom from the "Shanghai Communiqué", take the important consensus reached by the two heads of state as a guide, and strive to find the correct way for China and the United States to respect each other, coexist peacefully, and win-win cooperation under the new situation. The way to get along is to strive to benefit both countries and the world.

This is the responsibility and responsibility of China and the United States!