◎Our reporter Jin Feng

  With the Spring Festival approaching, people are paying more and more attention to health, diet and other fields, which also gives an opportunity for rumors.

Recently, a wave of rumors in the name of academic research or authoritative organizations infiltrated WeChat Moments——

  Rice cookers are the “catalysts” for liver cancer. People who walk fast live an average of 15 to 20 years longer than those who walk slowly. People who are infected with Helicobacter pylori will get stomach cancer, and China’s food supply will cause global food shortages…

  Today, a reporter from Science and Technology Daily will take stock of the rumors in January to help you clear the fog and find the truth.

  Rice cooker is a "catalyst" for liver cancer?

  The truth: Qualified products have no cancer risk

  "WHO calls: stop using rice cookers, which may be the cause of liver disease, don't mind" "Stop using rice cookers, it may be a 'catalyst' for liver cancer"... Recently, such rumors have sent rice cookers to the hot topic list.

  Are rice cookers a human health killer?

Lu Gang, a professor at the School of Materials, Nanjing University of Technology, told the Science and Technology Daily reporter: "If the inner pot of the rice cooker is made of Teflon made of high-quality polytetrafluoroethylene, there will be no risk of cancer."

  According to Lu Gang, Teflon has the characteristics of acid and alkali resistance and resistance to various organic solvents. It is almost insoluble in all solvents. Even if it is placed in boiled aqua regia, it will not change.

  However, Lugang does not deny that there are suspected carcinogenic substances in the PTFE used to make Teflon, but the content is very small.

  "When synthesizing PTFE, a surfactant called ammonium perfluorooctanoate is used. This substance is a suspected carcinogen, but its dosage is very small, and the finished PTFE will be washed with a lot of water before leaving the factory. After that, the content of ammonium perfluorooctanoate will become very small, or even not at all." Lu Gang said, in addition, polytetrafluoroethylene has to undergo high temperature treatment before it becomes Teflon. In this process, ammonium perfluorooctanoate will be further processed. eliminate.

  Do people who walk fast live 15 to 20 years longer than those who walk slowly?

  Fact: Walking speed does not determine human lifespan

  "If you want to live a long life, you must walk fast!" "You need to walk fast in order to live longer" "Walking fast will live 15 to 20 years longer than walking slow"... Recently, many online articles are titled "Longevity" Calling everyone to go.

The source of these voices comes from a study published in the Journal of the Mayo Clinic in the United States.

  记者查阅论文发现,这项研究系英国莱特斯大学等机构的研究人员联合做的一项调查,调查对象为474919名英国中老年人,他们的平均年龄为58.2岁,平均身体质量指数(BMI)为26.7。

  该研究显示,走路速度快的被调查者的预期寿命更长(女性为86.7岁至87.8岁,男性为85.2岁至86.8岁);相反,走路速度慢的被调查者预期寿命较短(女性为72.4岁,男性为64.8岁)。两者相差约15到20岁,这也成了传闻的“根据”。

  “网上流传的‘走路快的比走路慢的多活15到20年’的说法太夸张了,步速对于寿命的延长作用被放大了。”南京体育学院运动健康学院副教授、江苏省科普宣传委员会主任委员徐凯告诉科技日报记者,这一研究结论可以表明走路快慢跟寿命之间有一定的关系,但走路快未必一定长寿。正如研究者在论文中的表述,作为观察性的研究,无法对因果关系进行推断。

  “人的身体健康情况,才是影响寿命的重要因素。”徐凯表示,影响身体健康的因素有很多,包括饮食、情绪以及人际关系等,日常运动只是因素之一。

  感染幽门螺杆菌就会得胃癌?

  真相:只有不足1%的感染者或罹患胃癌

  近日,某款幽门螺杆菌自测产品上市,顿时在各大电商平台大火。在这波风潮背后,或多或少表现出民众对幽门螺杆菌的焦虑,这不,“感染幽门螺杆菌就会得胃癌”的流言,最近又在网络风行,那么事实果真如此吗?

  “幽门螺杆菌感染是我国常见的感染性疾病,从统计数据来看,如果感染了幽门螺杆菌但没有及时处理,患胃癌的风险会比没有感染的人高出约3到6倍。”江苏省人民医院消化科主任医师朱宏告诉科技日报记者,但他很快话锋一转,“不过即使感染了幽门螺杆菌,也不必过于担忧,从全国来看,目前只有不到1%的感染者可能会罹患胃癌。”

  幽门螺杆菌一般寄生于人体的胃部,是胃内最常见的病原体。朱宏介绍:“人体感染幽门螺杆菌后,就可能会出现胃黏膜炎症,而这就有可能引发胃癌。此外,由于幽门螺杆菌自身的基因产物、菌体蛋白有一定的致癌性,这也决定了感染幽门螺杆菌的人患胃癌的几率比未感染者要高。

  他表示,目前我国人群中幽门螺杆菌的感染率在40%左右,随着我国经济发展和医疗水平的提高,整体感染率在下降。

  幽门螺杆菌感染治愈后会复发吗?朱宏表示,幽门螺杆菌被彻底根除后真正再感染的几率很低,但如果根除治疗失败,幽门螺杆菌在体内的滴度很低时,现有的检测技术测量不出来,那么过一段时间就会旧“病”复燃。

  “成人根除治疗后再次感染与家庭环境有关系,如果家人感染了幽门螺杆菌,大家在一起生活,那么患者再次感染的几率可达5%;而如果家人没有感染,那再感染率只有4%。”朱宏说。

  中国囤粮致全球粮荒?

  真相:我国一直积极推行粮食去库存

  近期,有外国媒体诬称,中国大规模囤粮、恶意炒作粮价,导致一些国家出现了饥荒。

  在南京农业大学经济管理学院院长、金善宝农业现代化发展研究院副院长朱晶看来,让中国为全球粮食危机买单,是一种舆论炒作。

  众所周知,中国以占全球9%的耕地、6%的淡水资源,养活了近20%的人口,实现了人民生活从饥饿到温饱再到小康的历史性巨变。这既保障了中国自身的粮食安全,也为全球粮食安全作出了积极贡献。

  朱晶分析道,虽然我国进口一定数量的粮食,但并没有掌握第一手粮源,而是主要从国际四大粮商采购二手粮源。我国在全球粮食贸易中并无足够的话语权,也没有掌握粮食定价权。2020年以来的全球粮食价格上涨,主要是新冠肺炎疫情持续蔓延、极端天气频发、全球流动性过剩、国际资本炒作等各种因素叠加作用的结果。中国作为粮食采购方,采购行为主要以国内实际需求为基础,并根据国际市场供应情况,采取标准的国际贸易采购行为来进行。再者,从进口结构看,我国进口的粮食主要以大豆、玉米及高粱、大麦等为主,进口小麦和大米占比较小,对全球小麦和大米贸易影响很小。

  “我国人口众多,相对充足的库存是保障粮食安全的‘压舱石’,使我国有能力应对各种突发事件带来的风险挑战。”朱晶说,“过高的粮食储备水平并不是我国追求的目标,这不仅会带来财政压力,也容易造成粮食品质下降和损耗。实际上,近年来我国不仅没有囤积粮食,反倒是一直在积极推行粮食去库存。”

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